बुर्किना फासो

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Burkina Faso
बुर्किना फासोयागु ध्वांय [[Image:|110px|राष्ट्रीय चिं बुर्किना फासोयागु]]
ध्वांय राष्ट्रीय चिं
म्ये: उने सीउले नुइ  (फ्रांसे)
"छगु बहनी"

बुर्किना फासोयागु नक्सा


राजधानी Ouagadougou
12°20′N 1°40′W
तधंगु सहर Ouagadougou
औपचारिक भाय फ्रांसे भाय
सरकार Parliamentary system
 - President Blaise Compaoré
 - Prime Minister Paramanga Ernest Yonli
Independence from France 
 - Date अगस्ट ५ १९६० 
क्षेत्रफल  
 - फुकं 274,000 किमि² (74th)
  (105,792 वर्ग माइल) 
 - लयागु प्रतिशत (%) 0.1%
जनसंख्या  
 - 2005 एस्टिमेटेड 13,228,000 (66th)
 - 1996 सेन्सस् 10,312,669
 - जनघनत्व 48/किमि² (145th)
(124/वर्ग माइल) 
कुल ग्राहस्थ उत्पादन (पि पि पि) 2005 एस्टिमेट
 - फुकं $16.845 billion1 (117th)
 - प्रति छ्यं $1,284 (163rd)
मुद्रा CFA franc (XOF)
ई क्षेत्र GMT (UTC)
इन्टरनेट TLD .bf
कलिंग कोड +226
1 The data here is an estimation for the year 2005 produced by the International Monetary Fund in April 2005.

बुर्किना फासो वा बुर्किना पश्चिमी अफ्रिकाया छगू भूपरिवेष्ठित राष्ट्र ख। थ्व देय्‌यात ६गु देय्‌तेसं घेरेयानाच्वँगु दु। थ्व ख उत्तरय् माली, पूर्वय् नाइजर, दक्षिण पश्चिमय् बेनिन, दक्षिणय् टोगोघाना, व दक्षिण पश्चिमय् कोटे दिभोरे

थ्व देय्‌या क्षेत्रफल २७४०००nbsp;किमि दु। थ्व देय्‌या अनुमानित जनसंख्या १३,२००,००० स्वया अप्व दु। न्हापा थ्व देय्‌या नां अपर भोल्टा गणतन्त्र ख। लिपा अगस्ट ४, सन् १९८४य् थ्व देय्‌या नाँ राष्ट्रपति टमस सङ्कारां बुर्किना फासो तयादिल गुकिया अर्थ मोरे भाषा व दाओउला भाषाय् "the land of upright people" ख। भाषिक रुपय् बुर्किना खँग्वःया मोरे अर्थ इमान दुपिं मनुत (men of integrity) ख धाःसा "फासो" खँग्वःया दिओउला भाषाय् अर्थ "अबुया छेँ" ख। थ्व देय्‌या मनुतेत बुर्किनाबेइ Burkinabè धाइ।

बुर्किना फासोया राजधानी औआगादौगौ ख। फ्रान्सं स्वतन्त्रता हासिल जुइ धुंका सन् १९६०इ थ्व देशय् यक्व सरकार परिवर्तन जुल। लिपा आःया अर्ध-राष्ट्रपतिय व्यवस्थाय् स्थापित जुल। थ्व देय्‌या मानव विकास तथ्याङ्क उल्टां खुगु थासय् ला।

इतिहास[सम्पादन]

प्राचीनकाल[सम्पादन]

Like all of the west of Africa, Burkina Faso was populated early, notably by hunter-gatherers in the northwestern part of the country (12,000 to 5000 BC), and whose tools (scrapers, chisels and arrowheads) were discovered in 1973. Settlements appeared between 3600 and 2600 BC with farmers, the traces of whose structures leave the impression of relatively permanent buildings. The use of iron, ceramics and polished stone developed between 1500 and 1000 BC, as well as a preoccupation with spiritual matters, as shown by the burial remains which have been discovered.

Relics of the Dogon are found in the centre-north, north and north west region. They left the area between the 15th and 16th centuries BC to settle in the cliffs of Bandiagara. Elsewhere, the remains of high walls are localised in the southwest of Burkina Faso (as well as in the Côte d'Ivoire), but the people who built them have not yet been definitely identified.

Burkina Faso was a very important economic region for the Songhai Empire during the 15th and 16th centuries.

From colony to independence[सम्पादन]

After a decade of intense rivalry and competition between the British and the French, waged through treaty making expeditions under military or civilian explorers, in 1896, the Mossi kingdom of Ouagadougou was defeated by French colonial forces and became a French protectorate. The western region, where a standoff against the forces of the powerful ruler Samori Ture complicated the situation, and the eastern region came under French occupation in 1897 following different campaigns. By 1898, the majority of the territory corresponding to Burkina Faso today was nominally conquered, although control of many parts remained precarious. The French and British convention of June 14, 1898 ended the scramble between the two colonial powers and basically traced the borders between them. On the French side a war of conquest against local communities and political powers continued for about five years. In the 1904 large-scale reorganization of the French West African colonial empire, the now largely pacified territories of the Volta basin were integrated into the Upper-Senegal-Niger (Haut-Sénégal et Niger) colony of French West Africa (AOF). The colony had its capital in Bamako.

Draftees from the territory participated in the European fronts of First World War in the battalions of the Senegalese Infantry (Tirailleurs sénégalais). Between 1915 and 1916 the districts in the western part of what is now Burkina Faso and the bordering eastern fringe of Mali became the stage of one of the most important armed oppositions to colonial government (known as the Volta-Bani War). The French government finally suppressed the movement, but only after suffering defeats and being forced to gather the largest expeditionary force of its colonial history up to then. Armed opposition also wrecked the Sahelian north, as the Tuareg and allied groups of the Dori region ended their truce with the government. Once the First World War was over, on March 1, 1919, fear of recurrence of armed uprising and economic considerations led the colonial government to separate the present territory of Burkina Faso from Haut Sénégal et Niger so as to intensify its administration. The new colony was named Haute Volta and François Charles Alexis Édouard Hesling became its first governor. Hesling initiated an ambitious road making program and promoted cotton growing for export. The cotton policy, based on coercion, failed and revenue stagnated. The colony was dismanteled on September 5, 1932]], and its territory divided between Côte d’Ivoire, Mali and Niger, the largest share with most of the population and the cities of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso passing to Côte d'Ivoire.

The decision was reversed during the intense anti-colonial agitation that followed the end of the Second World War and on September 4 1947 Upper Volta was recreated in its 1932 boundaries. On December 11 1958, it achieved self-government, and became a republic and member of the Franco-African Community (La Communauté Franco-Africaine). Full independence was attained in 1960. The country's first military coup occurred in 1966; it returned to civilian rule in 1978. There was another coup, led by Saye Zerbo in 1980, which in turn was overthrown in 1982. A counter-coup was launched in 1983, which brought the charismatic Captain Thomas Sankara to leadership. In 1984 the revolutionary government changed the name of the country to Burkina Faso, its flag, and its national anthem. The current president is Blaise Compaoré, who came to power in 1987 after a coup d'état that killed Thomas Sankara.

Politics[सम्पादन]

Template:Morepolitics

President Blaise Compaoré of Burkina Faso, Source: Antônio Cruz

The constitution of June 2, 1991, established a semi-presidential government with a parliament (Assemblée) which can be dissolved by the President of the Republic, who is elected for a term of 5 years. The year 2000 saw a constitutional amendment reducing the presidential term from 7 to 5 years, which was enforced during the 2005 elections. Another change according to the amendment would have prevented sitting president Blaise Compaoré from being re-elected. However, notwithstanding a challenge by other presidential candidates, in October 2005 the constitutional council ruled that because Compaoré was already a sitting president in 2000, the amendment would not apply to him until the end of his second term in office. This cleared the way for his candidacy in the 2005 election. On November 13 Compaoré was reelected in a landslide due to a divided political opposition.

The parliament consists of two chambers: the lower house (l'Assemblée Nationale) and the upper house (la Chambre des Représentants). There is also a constitutional chamber, composed of ten members, and an economic and social council whose roles are purely consultative.

प्रशासनिक विभाजन[सम्पादन]

बुर्किना फासोय् १३गु क्षेत्र, ४५ प्रान्त व ३०१ विभाग दु।

क्षेत्र: Boucle du Mouhoun, Cascades, केन्द्र, Centre-Est, Centre-Nord, Centre-Ouest, Centre-Sud, Est, Hauts-Bassins, Nord, Plateau-Central, Sahel, Sud-Ouest.

प्रान्त: Balé, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komondjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koulpelogo, Kouritenga, Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Nahouri, Nayala, Noumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro, Zondoma, Zoundweogo

भूगोल[सम्पादन]

Map of Burkina Faso
Satellite image of Burkina Faso
Tolotama Reforestation, Burkina Faso

बुर्किना फासो निगु मू प्रकारया भूबनौटं दयाच्वंगु दु:

  • देय्‌या तःधंगु भूभाग पेनेप्लेनय् ला गन कि छुं गुं व प्रिक्याम्ब्रियन मासिफया ल्यं दु।
  • दक्षिण पश्चिम भूभाग स्यान्दस्तोन मासिफं दयाच्वंगु दु गनकि देय्‌या दकलय् तःजागु च्वका तेनाकोरु (749 m, 2,450 ft) ला। थ्व मासिफया सीमाय् १५० मितर तक्कया भीर दु।

थ्व देय्‌या औसत जा ४०० मितर वा १३०० फित दु। थनया दकलय् तःजागु व चिजागु थाय्‌या जाः ६०० मितर (२००० फित) स्वया कम जु। अतः, छुं अपवाद बाहेक थ्व छगू फ्ल्यात देय्‌ ख।

हाइद्रोलोजी[सम्पादन]

The country owed its former name of Upper Volta to three rivers which cross it: the Mouhoun (formerly called the Black Volta), the Nakambé (the White Volta) and the Nazinon (the Red Volta). The Mouhoun, along with the Comoé which flows to the south west, is the country's only river which flows year-round

The basin of the Niger River also drains 27% of the country's surface. Its tributaries (the Béli, the Gorouol, the Goudébo and the Dargol) are seasonal streams, and only flow for 4 to 6 months a year but can cause large floods.

The country also contains numerous lakes. The principal lakes are Tingrela, Bam and Dem, and the large ponds of Oursi, Béli, Yomboli and Markoye.

Water shortages are often a problem, especially in the north of the country.

Climate[सम्पादन]

Burkina Faso has a primarily tropical climate with two very distinct seasons: the rainy season with between 24-35 inches (600 and 900 mm) of rainfall, and the dry season during which the harmattan blows, a hot dry wind from the Sahara. The rainy season lasts approximately 4 months, May/June to September, and is shorter in the north of the country.

Three large climatic zones can be defined:

The Sahel Zone[सम्पादन]

The Sahel in the north typically receives less than 24 inches (600 mm)[१] rainfall a year and high temperatures 15–50 °C (60–120 °F). A relatively dry tropical savanna, the Sahel extends beyond the borders of Burkina Faso, from the Horn of Africa to the Atlantic Ocean, and borders the Sahara to its north, and the fertile region of the Sudan to the South.

The Sudan-Sahel zone[सम्पादन]

Situated between 11°3' and 13°5' north latitude, the Sudan-Sahel region is a transitional zone with regards to rainfall and temperature.

The Sudan-Guinea zone[सम्पादन]

Further to the south, the Sudan-Guinea zone receives more than 35 inches (900 mm)[१] rain a year and cooler average temperatures.

अर्थ[सम्पादन]

Tarfila Farming Group
Shop in Burkina Faso
Vendors in Burkina Faso

बुर्किना फासो हलिमया दकलय् गरिब देय्‌य् छगू ख। थ्व राष्ट्रया वार्षिक जिदिपि पर क्यापिता $१२०० दु। थ्व आय गणतन्त्र कंगो व ताजिकिस्तानया आयया झ्वलय् व। [२] थ्व देय्‌या कमजोर अर्थतन्त्र थनया उच्च जनसंख्या वृद्धि व बंजर चाया आधारय् परिभाषित यायेछिं। बुंज्या थ्व देय्‌या मू ज्या ख। थनया ८०प्रतिशत मनुतयेसं बुँज्यायासां थनया कूल ग्राहस्थ उत्पादया ३२% जक्क बुंज्यां पूर्ति या। बुंज्याय् पशु लहिनिगु व नापं शोर्गम, मिलेत, कःनि, बरां, जाकि व कपाय्‌ बुइकिगु ज्या नं ला।

थनया मनुतयेत लजगाया अवसर मदया थनया यक्व मनुत देय्‌ स्वया पिने वना ज्यायाये वं। दसु ३० लखः बुर्किना फासोमि आइभोरी कोस्तय् ज्यायाना च्वंगु दु। पश्चिम अफ्रिकी देय्‌तयेगु केन्द्रिय बैंक कथं थथे याना पिने ज्या यानाच्वंपिसं अर्बौं सिएफए फ्राङ्क प्रति वर्ष बुर्किना बासोय् लिहां छ्व। सन् १९६७स घानाया बुर्किना फासोमितयेत पिथना छ्वयेधुंका थीथी देशय् थ्व देय्‌या मनुतयेसं समस्या पिकाःगु खनेदु। दसु सन् २००३स आइभोरी कोस्तं ३०,००० बुर्किना फासोमितयेस पिथना छ्वल।

थ्व देय्‌या आर्थिक गतिविधिया तःधंगु भाग अन्तराष्ट्रिय ग्वहालिं सनाच्वंगु दु। देय्‌या मुद्रा सिएफए फ्राङ्क ख। थ्व देशय् तामा, न, म्यान्गानिज व लुंया खानी दु। बुर्किना फासों अन्तराष्ट्रिय कला व क्राफ्त मेला नं होस्त या।


Demographics[सम्पादन]

United Nations Square in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Sala Well

Burkina Faso has an estimated life expectancy at birth of slightly under 50 years of age. The median age of its inhabitants is under 17.

Population growth rate: 2.71% (2000 est.)

Population estimates take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.): the 11,946,065 Burkinabè belong to two major West African cultural groups--the Voltaic and the Mande. The Voltaic are far more numerous and include the Mossi, who make up about one-half of the population. Additionally, about 5,000 Europeans live in Burkina Faso.

The population is concentrated in the south and center of the country, sometimes exceeding 48 per square kilometer (125/sq. mi.). This high population density, causes annual migrations of hundreds of thousands, for seasonal employment.

Approximately 50% of the population is Muslim; Christians account for about 30%, and followers of traditional African religions (typically animism of various forms) make up about 20%. Many Christians incorporate elements of animism into their religious practices.

Culture[सम्पादन]

See also:

Education[सम्पादन]

Education in Burkina Faso is divided into primary, secondary, and higher education. However, schooling is not free. Secondary school costs approximatly $65 (33,000CFA) a year whic is far above the means of most Burkinabe families. Boys recieve preference in schooling therefore girl's education and literacy rates are far lower. In order to pass from elementary to middle school, middle to high school, or high school to college, national exams must be passed to proceed. Institutions of higher education include the University of Ouagadougou, and The Polytechnical University in Bobo-Dioulasso.

There is also an International School of Ouagadougou, which is an American based private school, which is situated in the capital city, Ouagadougou.

The United Nations Development Program Report places Burkina Faso as the most illiterate country in the world, with only a 12.8% literacy rate. (See List of countries by literacy rate.)

Miscellaneous topics[सम्पादन]

References[सम्पादन]

External links[सम्पादन]

Research[सम्पादन]

Culture[सम्पादन]

Government and organizations[सम्पादन]

News[सम्पादन]

Overviews[सम्पादन]

Directories and portals[सम्पादन]

Burkina Faso यागु बारेय् अप्व जानकारी फुकी ज्याझ्वय् कयादिसं:

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Selection of relevant links

Tourism[सम्पादन]

Template:Countries of West Africa