विकिपिडिया नं
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lustrous, metallic, and silver with a gold tinge
A pitted and lumpy piece of silvery metal, with the top surface cut flat
साधारण गुण
नां, चिं, ल्या निकेल, Ni, 28
उच्चारण /ˈnɪkəl/
धातुया वर्ग transition metal
ग्रुप, पिरियद, ब्लक 104, d
Standard atomic weight 58.6934(4)
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d8 4s2 or
[Ar] 3d9 4s1
2, 8, 16, 2 or 2, 8, 17, 1
Discovery 1751
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 8.908 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 7.81 g·cm−3
Melting point 1728 K, 1455 °C, 2651 °F
Boiling point 3003 K, 2730 °C, 4946 °F
Heat of fusion 17.48 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 379 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 26.07 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4,[१] 3, 2, 1,[२] −1
((a mildly basic oxide))
Electronegativity 1.91 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
1st: {{{1st ionization energy}}} kJ·mol−1
2nd: {{{2nd ionization energy}}} kJ·mol−1
3rd: {{{3rd ionization energy}}} kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 124 pm
Covalent radius 124±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 163 pm
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
निकेल has a face-centered cubic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 69.3Ω·m
Thermal conductivity 90.9 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 13.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) 4900 m·s−1
Young's modulus 200 GPa
Shear modulus 76 GPa
Bulk modulus 180 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31
Mohs hardness 4.0
Vickers hardness 638 MPa
Brinell hardness 700 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-02-0
Most stable isotopes
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
58Ni 68.077% >7×1020 y (β+β+) 1.9258 58Fe
59Ni trace 7.6×104 y ε 59Co
60Ni 26.223% 60Ni is stable with 32 neutrons
61Ni 1.14% 61Ni is stable with 33 neutrons
62Ni 3.634% 62Ni is stable with 34 neutrons
63Ni syn 100.1 y β 0.0669 63Cu
64Ni 0.926% 64Ni is stable with 36 neutrons
Decay modes in parentheses are predicted, but have not yet been observed
· r

निकेल छता रसायनिक तत्त्व ख।

विकिमिडिया मंका य् थ्व विषय नाप स्वापु दुगु मिडिया दु:
  1. Carnes, M. et al. (2009). "A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48. DOI:10.1002/anie.200804435. 
  2. Pfirrmann, S. et al. (2009). "A Dinuclear Nickel(I) Dinitrogen Complex and its Reduction in Single-Electron Steps". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48. DOI:10.1002/anie.200805862.