अजिङ्गर

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थन झासँ: navigation, मालादिसँ
?पाइथनिदे (अजिङ्गर)
भारतीय अजिङ्गर, पाइथन मोलुरस
भारतीय अजिङ्गर, पाइथन मोलुरस
वैज्ञानिक वर्गिकरण
किंगडम: एनिम्यालिया
फाइलम: कोर्दाता
सबफाइलम: भर्तेब्राता
क्लास: रेप्तिलिया
अर्डर: स्क्वामाता
सबअर्डर: सर्पेन्तेस
इन्फ्राअर्डर: अलेथिनोफिदिया
परिवार: पाइथनिदे
Fitzinger, १८२६
मेमेगु नां
  • Pythonoidea - Fitzinger, 1826
  • Pythonoidei - Eichwald, 1831
  • Holodonta - Müller, 1832
  • Pythonina - Bonaparte, 1840
  • Pythophes - Fitzinger, 1843
  • Pythoniens - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844
  • Holodontes - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844
  • Pythonides - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844
  • Pythones - Cope, 1861
  • Pythonidae - Cope, 1864
  • Peropodes - Meyer, 1874
  • Chondropythonina - Boulenger, 1879
  • Pythoninae - Boulenger, 1890
  • Pythonini - Underwood & Stimson, 1990
  • Moreliini - Underwood & Stimson, 1990[१]

अजिङ्गर वा पाइथनिदे छगू विष मदुगु सर्पतेगु परिवार ख। थ्व सर्प अफ्रिका, एसियाअस्ट्रेलियाय् खने दु। थ्व परिवार दुने हलिमया दक्ले तधंगु सर्पत ला। आतक्क थ्व परिवारय् ८गु जेनस व २६गु प्रजातित लुयावगु दु।[२]

Description[सम्पादन]

Green tree python, Morelia viridis

Adults range in size from 0.5 to 10 meters (1.5 to 33 feet) in length. One species, Python reticulatus, the reticulated python, holds the record for world's longest snake: 10 m (32 ft 9.5 in).

The Pythonidae are distinguished from the family Boidae (boas) by the fact that they have teeth on the premaxilla: a small bone at the very front and center of the upper jaw. Most species have rows of heat-sensing organs between the sublabial scales: labial pits. Although not as well developed as the loreal pits of the subfamily Crotalinae (pitvipers), these organs enable the snakes to detect objects that are hotter than the surrounding environment, and enable hunting to take place in total darkness, such as inside caves.

Some species exhibit vestigial bones of the pelvis and rear legs, which are externally apparent in the form of a pair of anal spurs on each side of the cloaca. These spurs are larger in males than females, and are used by the male to grip and/or stimulate the female during copulation. Male of certain species occasionally cause spur related injuries to each other during territorial combat, and though more likely to be incidental than intentional, some captured specimens have shown multiple episodes of scarring from such injuries.

Color patterns vary from striking to nondescript brown or olive. It usually reflects appropriate camouflage for the native habitat. Even within a given species, there may be enormous differences in coloration and pattern in different parts of the geographic range.

Geographic range[सम्पादन]

Found in subsaharan Africa, peninsular India, Myanmar, southern China, Southeast Asia and the Philippines southeast through Indonesia to New Guinea and Australia.[१]

In the United States, a population of Burmese pythons, Python molurus bivittatus, has existed as an invasive species in the Everglades National Park since the late 1990s, which has damaged the local ecosystem. More than 300 have been removed. They are not native to the south Floridian marshlands, but have been deposited there by pet owners who no longer wished to care for them and also did not want to euthanize them. Scientists believe that the snakes are a grave threat to nearly every species of animal in the Everglades, including alligators. There have been several accounts of python vs. alligator encounters there, including one in the fall of 2005 between a 13 foot (4 m) python and a six foot (1.8 m) gator that proved fatal for both. The two were found with the alligator's body protruding from a tear in the snake's body.[३]

संरक्षण[सम्पादन]

थ्व प्राणीयात मनुतेसं यक्व स्यायेगु या। अतः, भारतीय पाइथन पाइथन मोलुरस थें न्यागु प्राणीत आ म्हो जुया वना च्वंगु दु।

Behavior[सम्पादन]

Black-headed python,
Aspidites melanocephalus

Ambush predators, they typically remain motionless in a camouflaged position and then strike suddenly at passing prey. They will generally not attack humans unless startled or provoked, although females protecting their eggs can be aggressive. Large adult specimens can kill people. Unsuspecting children can and have become prey and swallowed whole after being suffocated. Reports of attacks on human beings were once more common in South and Southeast Asia, but are now quite rare.

Feeding[सम्पादन]

Prey is killed by a process known as constriction; after an animal has been grasped to restrain it, a number of coils are hastily wrapped around it. Then, by applying and maintaining sufficient pressure to prevent it from inhaling, the prey eventually succumbs due to asphyxiation. It has recently been suggested that the pressures produced during constriction cause cardiac arrest by interfering with blood flow, but this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed. As opposed to popular belief, prey is not crushed; even when constricting normal sized prey, sufficient pressure to break bones is almost certainly never applied.

Larger specimens usually eat animals about the size of a house cat, but larger food items are not unknown: some large Asian species have been known to take down adult Deer, and the African rock python, Python sebae, has been known to eat Gazelle). Prey is swallowed whole, and may take anywhere from several days or even weeks to fully digest. Despite their intimidating size and muscular power, they are generally not dangerous to humans.

प्रजनन[सम्पादन]

थ्व प्रजातिया मिसातेसं खेँ थ्वइ। अतः, थ्व ओभिप्यारस ख। थ्व गुणं याना थ्व सर्प व बोइदे सर्प पा। बोइदे सर्पं आपालं मचा बुइकी (ओभोभिभिप्यारस)।

लहिनिगु[सम्पादन]

थ्व परिवारया यक्व प्रजातित एक्जोटिक पाल्तुया कथं बनेज्या जुगु खने दु। अथे जुसां थ्व परिवारया तधंगु प्राणीत लहिनिबिले होस तय् मा। थ्व परिवारया तधंगु प्राणीतेसं थगु मालिकयात स्यागु प्रमाणत खंगु दु।[४]

Genera[सम्पादन]

Species[२] Authority[२] Species[२] Subsp.*[२] Common name Geographic range[१]
Antaresia Wells & Wellington, 1984 4 0 Australia in arid and tropical regions.
Apodora Kluge, 1993 1 0 Papuan python Most of New Guinea, from Misool to Fergusson Island.
Aspidites Peters, 1877 2 0 Australia except in the south of the country.
Bothrochilus Fitzinger, 1843 1 0 Bismark ringed python The islands of the Bismark Archipelago, including Umboi, New Britain, Gasmata (off the southern coast), Duke of York and nearby Mioko, New Ireland and nearby Tatau (off the east coast), the New Hanover Islands and Nissan Island.
Leiopython Hubrecht, 1879 1 0 D'Albert's water python Most of New Guinea (below 1200 m), including the islands of Salawati and Biak, Normanby, Mussau, as well as a few islands in the Torres Strait.
Liasis Gray, 1842 3 2 Indonesia in the Lesser Sunda Islands, east through New Guinea and in northern and western Australia.
Morelia Gray, 1842 7 5 From Indonesia in the Maluku Islands, east through New Guinea, including the Bismark Archipelago and in Australia.
PythonT Daudin, 1803 7 4 Pythons Africa in the tropics south of the Sahara (not including southern and extreme southwestern Madagascar), Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, the Nicobar Islands, Myanmar, Indochina, southern China, Hong Kong, Hainan, the malayan region of Indonesia and the Philippines.

*) Not including the nominate subspecies (typical forms).
T) Type genus.[१]

त्याक्सोनोमी[सम्पादन]

अजिङ्गरत बोआनाप मेमेगु सर्प वा प्राणीत नाप स्वया अप्व मिलेजु। छुं वैज्ञानिक कथं अजिङ्गरत बोआ परिवारया उप-परिवार ख।

किपा[सम्पादन]

स्वयादिसँ[सम्पादन]

लिधँसा[सम्पादन]

  1. १.० १.१ १.२ १.३ McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. २.० २.१ २.२ २.३ २.४ Pythonidae. Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  3. Huge, Freed Pet Pythons Invade Florida Everglades at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ National Geographic News. Accessed 16 September 2007.
  4. The Keeping of Large Pythons at Anapsid. Accessed 16 September 2007.

पिनेया स्वापूत[सम्पादन]