हर्निया

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हर्निया
वर्गीकरण व पिनेयागु श्रोत
ICD-10 K40-K46
ICD-9 550-553
MedlinePlus 000960
eMedicine emerg/251  ped/2559
A hernia is often likened to the failure of a tire. Here a split in the sidewall of an excavator tire allows the inner tube to protrude.

हर्निया धागु तन्तु, स्ट्रक्चर वा अंगयागु पार्टयु, उकियात भुनातगु मस्कुलर तन्तु वा मेम्ब्रेनं प्रोट्युजन जुइगु खः (definition from MeSH)। हर्नियायु स्वम्गु पार्ट दै: ओरिफिस , हर्नियल स्याक, व उकिगु कन्टेन्ट

A hernia may be likened to a failure in the sidewall of a pneumatic tire. The tire's inner tube behaves like the organ and the sidewall like the body cavity wall providing the restraint. A weakness in the sidewall allows a bulge to develop, which can become a split, allowing the inner tube to protrude, and leading to the eventual failure of the tire.

प्याथोफिजियोलोजी[सम्पादन]

By far most hernias develop in the abdomen, when a weakness in the abdominal wall evolves into a localized hole, or "defect", through which adipose tissue, or abdominal organs covered with peritoneum, may protrude. Another common hernia involves the intervertebral disc, and causes back pain or sciatica.

Hernias may present either with pain at the site, a visible or palpable lump, or in some cases by more vague symptoms resulting from pressure on an organ which has become "stuck" in the hernia, sometimes leading to organ dysfunction. Fatty tissue usually enters a hernia first, but it may be followed by or accompanied by an organ.

Most of the time, hernias develop when pressure in the compartment of the residing organ is increased, and the boundary is weak or weakened.

  • Weakening of containing membranes or muscles is usually congenital (which explains part of the tendency of hernias to run in families), and increases with age (for example, degeneration of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc), but it may be on the basis of other illnesses, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or Marfan syndrome, stretching of muscles during pregnancy, losing weight in obese people, etc., or because of scars from previous surgery.
  • Many conditions chronically increase intra-abdominal pressure, (pregnancy, ascites, COPD, dyschezia, benign prostatic hypertrophy) and hence abdominal hernias are very frequent. Increased intracranial pressure can cause parts of the brain to herniate through narrowed portions of the cranial cavity or through the foramen magnum. Increased pressure on the intervertebral discs, as produced by heavy lifting or lifting with improper technique, increases the risk of herniation.


इपिडेमियोलोजी[सम्पादन]

Between 1995 and 2005, 16,742 Americans died from a hernia.[१]

लक्षण[सम्पादन]

हर्नियायात इमिगु एनाटोमिकल थाय् कथलं बाये छिं:

दसुया लागि:

  • एब्डोमिनल हर्निया
  • डायफ्र्याग्म्याटिक हर्निया व हायाटल हर्निया (दसु, स्टोम्याकयु प्याराइसोफेजियल हर्निया)
  • पेल्भिक हर्निया, दसु, अब्टुरेटर हर्निया
  • इन्टरभर्टिब्रज डिस्कयु न्युक्लियस पल्पोसस् यागु हर्निया
  • इन्ट्राक्रेनियल हर्निया

E

  • रिड्युसिबल वा इरिड्युसिबल (also known as incarcerated): the hernial contents can or cannot be returned to their normal site with simple manipulation

If irreducible, hernias can develop several complications (hence, they can be complicated or uncomplicated):

  • स्ट्र्यांगुलेटेड: pressure on the hernial contents may compromise blood supply (especially veins, with their low pressure, are sensitive, and venous congestion often results) and cause ischemia, and later necrosis and gangrene, which may become fatal.
  • अब्स्ट्रक्सन: for example, when a part of the bowel herniates, bowel contents can no longer pass the obstruction. This results in cramps, and later on vomiting, ileus, absence of flatus and absence of defecation. These signs mandate urgent surgery.
  • another complication arises when the herniated organ itself, or surrounding organs start dysfunctioning (for example, sliding hernia of the stomach causing heartburn, lumbar disc hernia causing sciatic nerve pain, etc.)

चिकित्सा[सम्पादन]

It is generally advisable to repair hernias in a timely fashion, in order to prevent complications such as organ dysfunction, gangrene, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Most abdominal hernias can be surgically repaired, and recovery rarely requires long-term changes in lifestyle. Uncomplicated hernias are principally repaired by pushing back, or "reducing", the herniated tissue, and then mending the weakness in muscle tissue (an operation called herniorraphy). If complications have occurred, the surgeon will check the viability of the herniated organ, and resect it if necessary. Modern muscle reinforcement techniques involve synthetic materials (a mesh prosthesis) that avoid over-stretching of already weakened tissue (as in older, but still useful methods). The mesh is placed over the defect, and sometimes staples are used to keep the mesh in place. Increasingly, some repairs are performed through laparoscopes.

Many patients are managed through surgical daycare centers, and are able to return to work within a week or two, while heavy activities are prohibited for a longer period. Surgical complications have been estimated to be up to 10%, but most of them can be easily addressed. They include surgical site infections, nerve and blood vessel injuries, injury to nearby organs, and hernia recurrence.

Generally, the use of external devices to maintain reduction of the hernia without repairing the underlying defect (such as hernia trusses, trunks, belts, etc.), is not advised. Exceptions are uncomplicated incisional hernias that arise shortly after the operation (should only be operated after a few months), or inoperable patients.

It is essential that the hernia not be further irritated by carrying out strenuous labour.

Individual hernias[सम्पादन]

A sportman's hernia is a syndrome characterized by chronic groin pain in athletes and a dilated superficial ring of the inguinal canal, although a true hernia is not present.

इन्गुइनल हर्निया[सम्पादन]

Main article: इन्गुइनल हर्निया.
Diagram of an indirect, scrotal inguinal hernia ( median view from the left).

By far the most common hernias (up to 75% of all abdominal hernias) are the so-called inguinal hernias. For a thorough understanding of inguinal hernias, much insight is needed in the anatomy of the inguinal canal. Inguinal hernias are further divided into the more common indirect inguinal hernia (2/3, depicted here), in which the inguinal canal is entered via a congenital weakness at its entrance (the internal inguinal ring), and the direct inguinal hernia type (1/3), where the hernia contents push through a weak spot in the back wall of the inguinal canal. Inguinal hernias are more common in men than women while femoral hernias are more common in women.

फेमोरल हर्निया[सम्पादन]

मू च्वसु: फेमोरल हर्निया.

Femoral hernias occur just below the inguinal ligament, when abdominal contents pass into the weak area at the posterior wall of the femoral canal. They can be hard to distinguish from the inguinal type (especially when ascending cephalad): however, they generally appear more rounded, and, in contrast to inguinal hernias, there is a strong female preponderance in femoral hernias. The incidence of strangulation in femoral hernias is high. Repair techniques are similar for femoral and inguinal hernia.

Umbilical hernia[सम्पादन]

मू च्वसु: अम्बिलिकल हर्निया

Umbilical hernias are especially common in infants of African descent, and occur more in boys. They involve protrusion of intraabdominal contents through a weakness at the site of passage of the umbilical cord through the abdominal wall. These hernias often resolve spontaneously. Umbilical hernias in adults are largely acquired, and are more frequent in obese or pregnant women. Abnormal decussation of fibers at the linea alba may contribute.

इन्सिजनल हर्निया[सम्पादन]

मू च्वसु: इन्सिजनल हर्निया.

An incisional hernia occurs when the defect is the result of an incompletely healed surgical wound. When these occur in median laparotomy incisions in the linea alba, they are termed ventral hernias. These can be the most frustrating and difficult to treat, as the repair utilizes already attenuated tissue.

डायफ्र्याग्म्याटिक हर्निया[सम्पादन]

मू च्वसु: डायफ्र्याग्म्याटिक हर्निया
Diagram of a hiatus hernia (coronal section, viewed from the front).

Higher in the abdomen, an (internal) "diaphragmatic hernia" results when part of the stomach or intestine protrudes into the chest cavity through a defect in the diaphragm.

हायाटस हर्निया is a particular variant of this type, in which the normal passageway through which the esophagus meets the stomach (esophageal hiatus) serves as a functional "defect", allowing part of the stomach to (periodically) "herniate" into the chest. Hiatus hernias may be either "sliding," in which the gastroesophageal junction itself slides through the defect into the chest, or non-sliding (also known as para-esophageal), in which case the junction remains fixed while another portion of the stomach moves up through the defect. Non-sliding or para-esophageal hernias can be dangerous as they may allow the stomach to rotate and obstruct. Repair is usually advised.

Frontal chest X-ray showing a hernia of Morgagni.

A congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a distinct problem, occurring in up to 1 in 2000 births, and requiring pediatric surgery. Intestinal organs may herniate through several parts of the diaphragm, posterolateral (in Bochdalek's triangle, resulting in Bochdalek's hernia), or anteromedial-retrosternal (in the cleft of Larrey/Morgagni's foramen, resulting in Morgagni-Larrey hernia, or Morgagni's hernia).

मेमेगु हर्निया[सम्पादन]

Since many organs or parts of organs can herniate through many orifices, it is very difficult to give an exhaustive list of hernias, with all synonyms and eponyms. The above article deals mostly with "visceral hernias", where the herniating tissue arises within the abdominal cavity. Other hernia types and unusual types of visceral hernias are listed below, in alphabetical order:

मू च्वसु: स्पाइनल डिस्क हर्निएसन.

A spinal disc herniation is a condition where the central weak part of the intervertebral disc (nucleus pulposus, which helps absorb shocks to our spine), herniates through the fibrous band (annulus fibrosus) by which it is normally bound. This usually occurs low in the back at the lumbar or lumbo-sacral level and can cause back pain which usually radiates well into the thigh or leg. When the sciatic nerve is involved, the symptom complex is called sciatica. Herniation can occur in the cervical vertebrae too. A nucleoplasty is an operation to repair the herniation.

कम्प्लिकेसन[सम्पादन]

चिकित्सा मयागु हर्नियायु कम्प्लिकेसन जुइफु:

पप कल्चरय् हर्निया[सम्पादन]

  • In a Bill Cosby show (Fat Albert's got a hernia), he describes developing a hernia from picking up a sewer lid, and what happened to him afterwards.
  • On an episode of Friends, Joey got a hernia due to weightlifting, but had to wait to have it treated because his insurance lapsed. He eventually paid for the surgery by very realistically playing the part of 'Dying Man' in a movie.[४]


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माला दिसं हर्निया
विकिस्नरी, सितिंगु खंग्वसफूय्।

श्रोत[सम्पादन]

  • Surgical recall, 2nd edition, by Lorne. H. Blackbourne, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • Sabiston textbook of surgery, 17th edition, Townsend et.al.(e.d.), Elsevier-Saunders

श्रोत[सम्पादन]

  1. Title Singel, Ryan. "One Million Ways To Die", Wired News, 2006-09-11. Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
  2. Profile for Joe Gunderson: Reviews. Amazon.com (Retrieved September 25, 2006).
  3. Friends/Relaties en opmerkelijke gebeurtenissen. The Dutch Wikipedia (Retrieved September 25, 2006).
  4. M*A*S*H - The TV Series, Season 2, Vol. 3 (1972). Amazon.com (Retrieved September 25, 2006).
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