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गुंइ मिं नःगु

मि छगू अक्सिदेसन प्रक्रिया ख। थ्व प्रक्रियाय् विभिन्न इन्तेन्सितीया उर्जा जः (जःया वेभलेन्थ भिजिबल स्पेक्त्रम स्वया पिने नं लाय् फु) व तापया रुपय् पिहां वइ नापं कुं नं पिहांवे फइ। मि च्याकिगु सीकेज्या मनु लहनाया दक्ले तःधंगु सीकेज्याय् छ्गूया रुपय् नालेगु या। मि जंगली पशुतयेत ख्यायेत, नसा बुइकेत, जः दयेकेयात व चिकुइबिले ताप दयेकेयात आदिया निंतिं छ्येलिगु या।

रसायनशास्त्र[सम्पादन]

साधारण कथं मि निगु प्रकारया जुइ ज्वालामय व रसायनिक। थ्व निगु मिया थःगु हे कथंया गुण दु।

ज्वालामय मि[सम्पादन]

"फ्लेमिङ्ग" ककटेलय् म्हो मात्राय् मिनइगु अल्कोहलनाप मज्वनिगु कोदिज दइ। अल्कोहल त्वनेस्वया न्ह्यः थुकिइ मि च्याकिगु याइ।

फ्लेमिङ्ग मि छगू इन्धनयात तीव्र रुपं अक्सिदेसन याना कम्बस्चनं पिहां वइगु ज्वाला, ताप व जः ख। फ्लेम वा ज्वाला थमंतुं धाःसा ग्यासय् तीव्र रुपय् एक्जोथर्मिक रियाक्सन जुयाच्वंगु थासय् उत्त्पत्ति जुइ। एक्जोथर्मिक रियाक्सन थन्याःगु रियाक्सन ख गुकिलि रियाक्सनं ताप व उर्जा पिकाइ व रियाक्सनया लिच्वःया कथं अप्व स्थिर रसायनया उत्त्पत्ति जुइ। मिं न्याच्वंगु इन्धनय् केमिकल रियाक्सन जुयाच्वनिबिले जः फोतोनया रुपय् उत्त्पत्ति जुइ व इन्धनया अक्सिदेसनं थ्व जः उर्जायात पिथनि। रसायनिक व भौतिक हिलेज्याया आधारय् ज्वालां मिखां खनिगु वा मखनिगु स्पेक्ट्रमय् जः पिथनि दसु- मिंनःगु अल्कोहल वा मिनःगु हाइद्रोजन आपालं मिखां मखनिगु तर यक्व ताप उर्जा दूगु मि पिकाइ।

The visible "clear" flame has no mass. What we see as a flame is actually energy (photons) being released in the form of light by the oxidation of the fuel. The color of the flame is dependent upon the energy level of the photons emitted. Lower energy levels produce colors toward the red end of the light spectrum while higher energy levels produce colors toward the blue end of the spectrum. The hottest flames are white in appearance. The color of a fire may also be affected by chemical elements in the flame, such as barium giving a green flame color. The flame color depends also on the unoxidized carbon particles. In some cases there is a partial fuel oxidation due to oxygen lack in the central part of the flame, where combustion reactions take place. In such cases the unoxidized hot carbon particles emit radiation in the light spectrum, resulting in a yellow/red flame, such that of common house fireplace.

Chemical Reaction[सम्पादन]

The fire triangle

Fires start when a flammable and/or a combustible material with an adequate supply of oxygen or another oxidizer is subjected to enough heat. This is commonly called the fire triangle. No fire can exist without all three elements being in place.

Burns[सम्पादन]

Fire causes injury in forms of first-, second-, and third-degree burns. A first-degree burn damages the epidermis only, while a second-degree burn goes through the epidermis and dermis. A third-degree burn destroys both the epidermis and dermis, and kills all nerve receptors underneath the skin.

The common fire-causing sources of heat include:

Once ignited, fires can sustain their own heat by the further release of heat energy in the process of combustion and may propagate, provided there is a continuous supply of oxygen and fuel.

Fire can be extinguished by removing any one of the elements of the fire triangle. The traditional extinguishant of water acts by cooling the combusting material to stop the reaction, whereas a Carbon Dioxide extinguisher acts by starving the fire of oxygen.

The unburnable solid remains of a combustible material left after a fire are called ash, soot or cinder.

Flame[सम्पादन]

किपा:Standard capmping fire 18 08 05.JPG
The incomplete burn of a camp fire produces the common red-orange glow
मू पौ: Flame

A flame is an exothermic, self-sustaining, oxidizing chemical reaction producing energy and glowing hot matter, of which a very small portion is plasma. It consists of reacting gases and solids emitting visible and infrared light, the frequency spectrum of which depends on the chemical composition of the burning elements and intermediate reaction products.

In many cases, such as the burning of organic matter, for example wood, or the incomplete combustion of gas, incandescent solid particles called soot produce the familiar red-orange glow of 'fire'. This light has a continuous spectrum. Complete combustion of gas has a dim blue color due to the emission of single-wavelength radiation from various electron transitions in the excited molecules formed in the flame. For reasons currently unknown by scientists, the flame produced by exposure of zinc to air is a bright green, and produces plumes of zinc oxide. Usually oxygen is involved, but hydrogen burning in chlorine also produces a flame, producing hydrogen chloride (HCl). Other possible combinations producing flames, amongst many more, are fluorine and hydrogen, and hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.

The glow of a flame is complex. Black-body radiation is emitted from soot, gas, and fuel particles, though the soot particles are too small to behave like perfect blackbodies. There is also photon emission by de-excited atoms and molecules in the gases. Much of the radiation is emitted in the visible and infrared bands. The color depends on temperature for the black-body radiation, and on chemical makeup for the emission spectra. The dominant color in a flame changes with temperature. The photo of the forest fire is an excellent example of this variation. Near the ground, where most burning is occurring, the fire is white, the hottest color possible for organic material in general, or yellow. Above the yellow region, the color changes to orange, which is cooler, then red, which is cooler still. Above the red region, combustion no longer occurs, and the uncombusted carbon particles are visible as black smoke.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States has recently found that gravity plays a role. Modifying the gravity causes different flame types.[१] The common distribution of a flame under normal gravity conditions depends on convection, as soot tends to rise to the top of a general flame, as in a candle in normal gravity conditions, making it yellow. In microgravity or zero gravity, such as an environment in outer space, convection no longer occurs, and the flame becomes spherical, with a tendency to become more blue and more efficient (although it will go out if not moved steadily, as the CO2 from combustion does not disperse in microgravity, and tends to smother the flame). There are several possible explanations for this difference, of which the most likely is that the temperature is evenly distributed enough that soot is not formed and complete combustion occurs.[२] Experiments by NASA reveal that diffusion flames in microgravity allow more soot to be completely oxidized after they are produced than diffusion flames on Earth, because of a series of mechanisms that behave differently in microgravity when compared to normal gravity conditions.[३] These discoveries have potential applications in applied science and industry, especially concerning fuel efficiency.

In combustion engines, various steps are taken to eliminate a flame. The method depends mainly on whether the fuel is oil, wood, or a high-energy fuel such as jet fuel.

Typical temperatures of fires and flames[सम्पादन]

  • Oxyhydrogen flame: 2000 °C or above) (3645 °F) [४]
  • Bunsen burner flame: 1300 to 1600 °C (2372 to 2912 °F) [५]
  • Blowtorch flame: 1,300 °C (2372 °F) [६]
  • Candle flame: 1000 °C (1832 °F)
  • Smoldering cigarette:
    • Temperature without drawing: side of the lit portion; 400 °C (750 °F); middle of the lit portion: 585 °C (1110 °F)
    • Temperature during drawing: middle of the lit portion: 700 °C (1290 °F)
    • Always hotter in the middle.

Temperatures of flames by appearance[सम्पादन]

The temperature of flames with carbon particles emitting light can be assessed by their color:[७]

  • Red
    • Just visible: 977 °F (525 °C)
    • Dull: 1290 °F (700 °C)
    • Cherry, dull: 1470 °F (800 °C)
    • Cherry, full: 1650 °F (900 °C)
    • Cherry, clear: 1830 °F (1000 °C)
  • Orange
    • Deep: 2010 °F (1100 °C)
    • Clear: 2190 °F (1200 °C)
  • White
    • Whitish: 2370 °F (1300 °C)
    • Bright: 2550 °F (1400 °C)
    • Dazzling: 2730 °F (1500 °C)

Controlling fire[सम्पादन]

A blacksmith's fire, used primarily for forging iron.

The ability to control fire is one of humankind's great achievements. Fire making to generate heat and light made it possible for people to migrate to colder climates and enabled people to cook food — a key step in the fight against disease. Archaeology indicates that ancestors or relatives of modern humans might have controlled fire as early as 790,000 years ago. The Cradle of Humankind site has evidence for controlled fire from 1 to 1.8 million years ago.[८] By the Neolithic Revolution, during the introduction of grain based agriculture, people all over the world used fire as a tool in landscape management. These fires were typically controlled burns or "cool fires", as opposed to uncontrolled "hot fires" that damage the soil. Hot fires destroy plants and animals, and endanger communities. This is especially a problem in the forests of today where traditional burning is prevented in order to encourage the growth of timber crops. Cool fires are generally conducted in the spring and fall. They clear undergrowth, burning up biomass that could trigger a hot fire should it get too dense. They provide a greater variety of environments, which encourages game and plant diversity. For humans, they make dense, impassable forests traversable.

The first technical application of the fire may have been the extracting and treating of metals. There are numerous modern applications of fire. In its broadest sense, fire is used by nearly every human being on earth in a controlled setting every day. Users of internal combustion vehicles employ fire every time they drive. Thermal power stations provide electricity for a large percentage of humanity.

The use of fire in warfare has a long history. Hunter-gatherer groups around the world have been noted as using grass and forest fires to injure their enemies and destroy their ability to find food, so it can be assumed that fire has been used in warfare for as long as humans have had the knowledge to control it. Homer detailed the use of fire by Greek commandos who hid in a wooden horse to burn Troy during the Trojan war. Later the Byzantine fleet used Greek fire to attack ships and men. American and British warplanes destroyed the German city of Dresden on February 14, 1945 by creating a firestorm, in which a ring of fire surrounding the city was drawn inward by an updraft caused by a central cluster of fires. In the Vietnam War, the Americans dropped napalm from the air. More recently many villages were burned during the Rwandan Genocide. Aerial bombing of cities, including firebombing using incendiary bombs, was also used frequently during World War II. Molotov cocktails are cheap to construct and are commonly used as well.

Fire and fuel[सम्पादन]

Setting fuel aflame releases usable energy. Wood was a prehistoric fuel, and is still viable today. The use of fossil fuels, such as petroleum, natural gas and coal, in power plants supplies the vast majority of the world's electricity today; the International Energy Agency states that nearly 80% of the world's power comes from these sources.[९] The fire in a power station is used to heat water, creating steam that drives turbines. The turbines then spin an electric generator to produce power.

The burning of wood is often the first association to the word "fire". It is common in a developing country for wood to be the primary energy source as well. For instance, in Africa, 65% of the energy used comes from the burning of biomass.[१०] What is less obvious is that wood burning power stations are less environmentally destructive than the fired oil power station in two major respects: first, wood is a renewable resource, especially if trees are grown in a modern, sustainable way; second, the carbon dioxide emissions are negligible because no more carbon dioxide can be produced by burning than was removed by photosynthesis during production of the wood. Thus, over a 100-year timescale, the effect is carbon-neutral.[११]. E.ON UK is soon to build a 44 megawatt wood fired power station in the United Kingdom for these reasons.[१२]


Fire protection and prevention[सम्पादन]

मू पौ: Fire protection
A structure fire

Fire fighting services are provided in most developed areas to extinguish or contain uncontrolled fires. Trained firefighters use fire trucks, water supply resources such as water mains and fire hydrants, and an array of other equipment to combat the spread of fires.

Model building Codes require passive fire protection and active fire protection systems to minimize damage resulting from a fire. To maximize fire safety of buildings, building products, materials and furnishings in the United States are tested for fire resistance, combustibility and flammability. The same applies to upholstery, carpeting and plastics used in vehicles and vessels. Buildings, especially schools and tall buildings, often conduct fire drills to inform and prepare citizens on how to react to a building fire.

Purposely starting destructive fires constitutes arson and is a criminal offense in most jurisdictions.

Some jurisdictions operate systems of classifying fires using code letters. Whilst these may agree on some classifications, they also vary. Below is a table showing the standard operated in Europe and Australasia against the system used in the United States.

Flammable gas warning
Type of Fire European/Australasian Classification United States Classification
Fires that involve flammable solids such as wood, cloth, rubber, paper, and some types of plastics. Class A Class A
Fires that involve flammable liquids or liquifiable solids such as petrol/gasoline, oil, paint, some waxes & plastics, but not cooking fats or oils Class B Class B
Fires that involve flammable gases, such as natural gas, hydrogen, propane, butane Class C
Fires that involve combustible metals, such as sodium, magnesium, and potassium Class D Class D
Fires that involve any of the materials found in Class A and B fires, but with the introduction of an electrical appliances, wiring, or other electrically energized objects in the vicinity of the fire, with a resultant electrical shock risk if a conductive agent is used to control the fire Class E Class C
Fires involving cooking fats and oils. The high temperature of the oils when on fire far exceeds that of other flammable liquids making normal extinguishing agents ineffective. Class F Class K

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