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गेमेलान

विकिपिडिया नं
Gamelan - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra

गामेलान धाःगु छगु कथंया इन्दोनेसियन सांगीतिक परम्परा खः। थुकिलि मेटालोफोन, जाइलोफोन, ड्रम, गंग, पंया बांसुरी, तार बाजं नापं मे हालिगु जुइ। गामेलानयात छगू निश्चित रुपं नापं थायेज्युगु बाजंतेगु पुचः ख। थीथी गामेलानया बाजंत धाःसा हिलेमछिं।

गामेलान खँग्वः जाभानिज भासाया खँग्वः "गामेल" व "आन" स्वाना बुयावःगु ख। गामेलया अर्थ न्यायेकिगु वा मुगः जुइ। मलेय-इन्दोनेसियन उपसर्ग "आन" धाःसा मंका नामपदयात थुइकेगु खँग्वः खः।

बाजं व गुण[सम्पादन]

इन्डोनेसियाली राजदुतावास, क्यान्बेराय् जावानिज ड्रमतः

गामेलानया परम्परा इन्दोनेसियाया जाभा, मदुरा, बाली, व लोम्बोक (व मेमेगु सुन्दा द्वीप)य् खनेदु। थ्व बाजंखलःया आकार व रुप थाय्-कथं पाः। बाली व लोम्बोकय् वर्तमानय् व जाभाय् १८गू शताब्दी तक "गोङ्ग" खँग्वःयात गामेलानया पर्यायया रुपय् छ्यलातःगु खनेदु। गामेलान थें न्याःगु अन्य पुचः, गुकियात बाजंविज्ञतेसं गङ्ग-चाइम पुचः (gong-chime ensembles) धाइ, इन्दोनेसिया स्वया पिने, इन्दोनेसिया नापंया फिलिपिन्स, मलेसिया व स्थानातरणया कारणं सुरिनाम तक खनेदु।

अस्त्रेलियाया इन्दोनेसियन राजदूतावासय् जाभानिज गङ्ग

Although gamelan ensembles sometimes include solo and choral voices, plucked and/or bowed string and wind instruments, they are most notable for the large number of metal percussion instruments. A central Javanese gamelan ensemble includes:

बालीयु ज्ञामेलान जेगोग

Metals used include bronze, brass, and iron, with a 10:3 copper-to-tin bronze alloy usually considered the best material. In addition, there are gamelan ensembles composed entirely of bamboo-keyed instruments, of bamboo flutes, of zithers, or of unaccompanied voices with the functions of metallophones or gongs in the metal ensemble transferred to surrogates.

There are many ways to look at the musical structure of gamelan music. One is to consider three layers: a fixed melodic outline, with punctuated by lower pitched instruments and decorated by higher pitched instruments. A Javanese classification also adds a leader of the melody and a leader of time. Many of the music forms will be marked at the end by the largest gong in the ensemble, although there are some exceptions.

प्रकार[सम्पादन]

बालीया गामेलान[सम्पादन]

Playing gamelan instruments - Bpk. Soegito at the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.

जाभानिज ग्यामेलान[सम्पादन]

मेमेगु इन्डोनेशियाली ग्यामेलान[सम्पादन]

सांस्कृतिक पक्ष[सम्पादन]

Gamelan is often used to accompany dance, wayang puppet performances, and rituals. Some performances are associated with royalty, such as visits by the sultan of Yogyakarta. Certain gamelans are associated with rituals, such as the Gamelan Sekaten, which is used in celebration of Mawlid an-Nabi (Muhammad's birthday). In Bali, almost all religious rituals include gamelan performance.

In the West, gamelan is often performed in a concert context, but may also incorporate dance or wayang.

ट्युनिंग[सम्पादन]

Celempung - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.

The tuning and construction of a gamelan orchestra is a complex process. Javanese gamelans use two tuning systems: sléndro and pélog. There are other tuning systems such as degung (exclusive to Sunda, or West Java), and madenda (also known as diatonis, similar to a European natural minor scale). In central Javanese gamelan, sléndro is a system with five notes to the diapason (octave), fairly evenly spaced, while pélog has seven notes to the octave, with uneven intervals, usually played in five note subsets of the seven-tone collection. This results in sound quite different from music played in a western tuning system. Many gamelan orchestras will include instruments in each tuning, but each individual instrument will only be able to play notes in one. The precise tuning used differs from ensemble to ensemble, and give each ensemble its own particular flavour. Colin McPhee (1966) remarks, "Deviations in what is considered the same scale are so large that one might with reason state that there are as many scales as there are gamelans." However, this is a view that is contested by some teachers of gamelan, and there have been efforts to combine multiple ensembles and tuning structures into one gamelan so as to ease transportation issues at the times of festivals. One such ensemble is gamelan Manikasanti, which can play the repertoire of many different ensembles.

A peculiarity of gamelans is that, although the intervals between notes in a scale are very close to identical for different instruments within each gamelan, the intervals vary from one gamelan to the next. The occasion for the word approximately is that it is common in Balinese gamelan that instruments are played in pairs which are tuned slightly apart so as to produce interference beating which are ideally at a consistent speed for all pairs of notes in all registers. It is thought that this contributes to the very "busy" and "shimmering" sound of gamelan ensembles. In the religious ceremonies that contain Gamelan, these interference beats are meant to give the listener a feeling of a god's presence or a stepping stone to a meditative state.



स्वयादिसँ[सम्पादन]

ब्वना दिसं[सम्पादन]

बालीनिज गामेलान[सम्पादन]

Javanese gamelan[सम्पादन]

  • Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java (1995) by Sumarsam, ISBN 0-226-78010-4 (cloth) 0226780112 (paper)
  • Music in Java: History Its Theory and Its Technique (1949) edited by Jaap Kunst, ISBN 90-247-1519-9. An appendix of this book includes some statistical data on intervals in scales used by gamelans.
  • A Gamelan Manual: A Player's Guide to the Central Javanese Gamelan (2005) by Richard Pickvance, Jaman Mas Books, London, ISBN 0-9550295-0-3

लिखँ[सम्पादन]


पिनेयागु स्वापू[सम्पादन]

न्येनादिसँ[सम्पादन]