उत्तरार्ध प्राचीन जापानी भाषा

विकिपिडिया नं
थन झासँ: navigation, मालादिसँ
उत्तरार्ध प्राचीन जापानी भाषा
中古日本語
खंल्हाइगु थाय: जापान
लोप भाषा: Evolved into Early Middle Japanese at the end of the 12th century
भाषा परिवार: जापोनिक
 उत्तरार्ध प्राचीन जापानी भाषा
 
च्वैगु लिपि: हिरागाना, काताकाना, व हान
भाषा कोड
आइ एस ओ ६३९-१: मदु
आइ एस ओ ६३९-२: तनेल्यं दनि
आइ एस ओ ६३९-३: — 

उत्तरार्ध प्राचीन जापानी भाषा (中古日本語 chūko nihongo?) जापानी भाषाया छगु स्टेज ख। थ्व स्टेजया भाषाया छ्य्‌लेज्या ७९४११८५या दुने जुगु खने दु। थ्व ई यात हेइयान युग धका धाय्‌गु या। थ्व भाषा प्राचीन जापानी भाषाया उत्तराधिकारी ख।

पृष्ठभूमि[सम्पादन]

प्राचीन जापानी नं चिनिया लिपि थिंका छ्‌यलातगु जुसां प्राचीन कालया उत्तरार्धय् निगु न्हुगु लिपित विकशित जुल : हिरागानाकाताकाना। थ्व विकासं च्वेगु पद्धतियात अपुकल। गेन्जीया बाखं , पं चाइमेसिगु बाखं, इसेया बाखं आदि थें न्यागु साहित्य थ्व न्हुगु लिपिया विकास जुइ धुंका जुल व थुकिया विकास नापं जापानी साहित्यय् छगू न्हुगु काल वल।

Phonemes[सम्पादन]

Major phonological changes are a characteristic of this period:

Whereas Old Japanese made 88 syllabic distinctions, Late Old reduces that count to 66.

a i u e o
ka ki ku ke ko
ga gi gu ge go
sa si su se so
za zi zu ze zo
ta ti tu te to
da di du de do
na ni nu ne no
ha hi hu he ho
ba bi bu be bo
ma mi mu me mo
ya   yu   yo
ra ri ru re ro
wa wi   we  

The most prominent difference is the loss of Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai, which distinguished between two types of -i, -e, and -o. While the beginnings of this loss can already be seen at the end of Old Japanese, it is completely lost early in Late Old Japanese. The final phonemes to be lost are /ko1/ and /ko2/.

During the 10th century, /e/ and /ye/ merge into /e/ while /o/ and /wo/ merge into /o/ by the 11th century.[१][२][३]

उच्चारण[सम्पादन]

मांआखः[सम्पादन]

बाआखः[सम्पादन]

/k, g/[सम्पादन]

/k, g/: [k, g]

/s, z/[सम्पादन]

Theories for /s, z/ include [s, z], [ts, dz], and [ʃ, ʒ]. It may have varied depending on the following vowel, as it does with modern Japanese.

/t, d/[सम्पादन]

/t, d/: [t, d]

/n/[सम्पादन]

/n/: [n]

/h/[सम्पादन]

/h/ continues to be phonetically realized as [ɸ] . With one exception: By the 11th century, Intervocalic /h/ is realized as [w].

/m/[सम्पादन]

/m/: [m]

/y/[सम्पादन]

/y/: [j]

/r/[सम्पादन]

/r/: [r]

/w/[सम्पादन]

/w/: [w]

Syllable structure[सम्पादन]

Grammar[सम्पादन]

Verbs[सम्पादन]

Late Old Japanese inherits all eight verbal conjugations from Old Japanese and adds one new one: Lower Monograde (下一段).

Conjugation[सम्पादन]

Verb Class Irrealis
未然形
Adverbial
連用形
Conclusive
終止形
Attributive
連体形
Realis
已然形
Imperative
命令形
Quadrigrade (四段) -a -i -u -u -e -e
Upper Monograde(上一段) - - -ru -ru -re -(yo)
Upper Bigrade (上二段) -i -i -u -uru -ure -i(yo)
Lower Monograde (下一段) -e -e -eru -eru -ere -e(yo)
Lower Bigrade (下二段) -e -e -u -uru -ure -e(yo)
K-irregular (カ変) -o -i -u -uru -ure -o
S-irregular (サ変) -e -i -u -uru -ure -e(yo)
N-irregular (ナ変) -a -i -u -uru -ure -e
R-irregular (ラ変) -a -i -i -u -e -e

Consonant / Vowel Stem[सम्पादन]

Verbs having a base that ends in a consonant are known as consonant-stem. These are exhibited by the following conjugation classes: Quadrigrade, Upper Bigrade, Lower Monograde, Lower Bigrade, S-irregular, R-irregular, K-irregular, and N-irregular.

Verbs having a base that ends in a vowel are known as vowel-stem. These are exhibited by the following conjugation classes: Upper Monograde.

Irregular Verbs[सम्पादन]

There are several verbs with irregular conjugations.

  • K-irregular: k- "come"
  • S-irregular: s- "do"
  • N-irregular: sin- "die", in- "go, die"
  • R-irregular: ar- "be, exist", wor- "be, exist"

The conjugation class for each is named after the final stem consonant.

Adjectives[सम्पादन]

There were two types of adjectives: regular adjectives and adjectival nouns.

The regular adjective is sub-classified into two types: those where the adverbial form (連用形) ends in -ku and those that end in –siku. This creates two different types of conjugations:

Adjective Class Irrealis
未然形
Adverbial
連用形
Conclusive
終止形
Attributive
連体形
Realis
已然形
Imperative
命令形
-ku   -ku -si -ki -kere  
-kara -kari -si -karu   -kare
-siku   -siku -si -siki -sikere  
-sikara -sikari -si -sikaru   -sikare

The -kar- and -sikar- forms are derived from the verb ar- "be, exists". The adverbial conjugation (-ku or -siku) is suffixed with ar-. The conjugation yields to the R-irregular conjugation of ar-. The resulting -ua- elides into -a-.

The adjectival noun retains the original nar- conjugation and adds a new tar-:

Type Irrealis
未然形
Adverbial
連用形
Conclusive
終止形
Attributive
連体形
Realis
已然形
Imperative
命令形
Nar- -nara -nari
-ni
-nari -naru -nare -nare
Tar- -tara -tari
-to
-tari -taru -tare -tare

The nar- and tar- forms share a common etymology. The nar- form is a contraction of case particle ni and r-irregular verb ar- "is, be": ni + ar- > nar-. The tar- form is a contraction of case particle to and r-irregular verb ar- "is, be": to + ar- > tar-. Both derive their conjugations from the verb ar-.

Writing system[सम्पादन]

Late Old Japanese was written in three different ways. It was first recorded in Man'yōgana, Chinese characters used as a phonetic transcription as in Early Old Japanese. This usage later produced the hiragana and katakana syllabic scripts which were derived from simplifications of the original Chinese characters.

नोट[सम्पादन]

  1. १.० १.१ Kondō, Nihongo no Rekishi, pages 67-71
  2. २.० २.१ Yamaguchi, Nihongo no Rekishi, pages 43-45
  3. ३.० ३.१ Frellesvig, page 73

लिधंसा[सम्पादन]

  • Yamaguchi, Akiho, Hideo Suzuki, Ryūzō Sakanashi, Masayuki Tsukimoto (1997). Nihongo no Rekishi. Tōkyō Daigaku Shuppankai. ISBN 4-13-082004-4.
  • Kondō, Yasuhiro, Masayuki Tsukimoto, Katsumi Sugiura (2005). Nihongo no Rekishi. Hōsō Daigaku Kyōiku Shinkōkai. ISBN 4-595-30547-8.
  • Ōno, Susumu (2000). Nihongo no Keisei. Iwanami Shoten. ISBN 4-00-001758-6.
  • Martin, Samuel E. (1987). The Japanese Language Through Time. Yale University. ISBN 0-300-03729-5.
  • Shibatani, Masayoshi (1990). The languages of Japan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36918-5.
  • Frellesvig, Bjarke (1995). A Case Study in Diachronic Phonology: The Japanese Onbin Sound Changes. Aarhus University Press. ISBN 87-7288-489-4.

स्वयादिसँ[सम्पादन]

इन्क्युबेतरय् थ्व भाषाया विकिपिडिया