Sophocles (Greek: Σοφοκλής; 495 BC–406 BC) छम्ह प्राचीन युनानी ट्र्याजिडी छ्वम्हि खः।
Only two of the seven surviving plays have securely dated first or second performances: Philoctetes (409 BC) and Oedipus at Colonus (401 BC, put on after Sophocles' death by his grandson, also called Sophocles). Of the others, Electra shows stylistic similarities to these two plays, and so is probably late. Ajax, Antigone and The Trachiniae are generally thought to be early, again on grounds of style, with Oedipus the King coming in Sophocles' middle period (see e.g. Lloyd-Jones 1994: 8-9).
थेबेन् नाटकतः (इडिपस चक्र)[सम्पादन]
- Oedipus the King (Oedipus Rex or Oedipus Tyrannos) (second prize)
- Oedipus at Colonus (first prize)
- The Trachiniae
- Philoctetes (first prize)
- The Tracking Satyrs
- The Progeny
- Aias Lokros (Ajax the Locrian)
- Akhaiôn Syllogos (The Gathering of the Achaeans)
- Nauplios Katapleon (Nauplius' Arrival)
- Nauplios Pyrkaeus (Nauplius' Fires)
- Poimenes (The Shepherds)
- Syndeipnoi (The Diners, or, The Banqueters)
- Troilus and Phaedra
- Tyro Keiromene (Tyro Shorn)
- Tyro Anagnorizomene (Tyro Rediscovered)
Fragments of The Tracking Satyrs (Ichneutae) were discovered in Egypt in 1907. It is one of only two recovered satyr plays.
Fragments of The Progeny (Epigonoi) were discovered in April 2005 by classicists at Oxford University with the help of infrared technology previously used for satellite imaging. The tragedy tells the story of the siege of Thebes. The fragment translates to the following:
Speaker A: . . . gobbling the whole, sharpening the flashing iron.
Speaker B: And the helmets are shaking their purple-dyed crests, and for the wearers of breast-plates the weavers are striking up the wise shuttle's songs, that wakes up those who are asleep.
Speaker A: And he is gluing together the chariot's rail.
- Like many Ancient Greek names, that of Sophocles (Σοφοκλης) has a meaning. A compound of σοφός (sophos) "wise" and κλέος (kleos) "glory", Sophocles' name translates to "famous for wisdom."
- An asteroid, 2921 Sophocles, was named after him.
- Aristotle used Sophocles's Oedipus the King as an example of perfect tragedy.
- ↑ Keys, David, Pyke, Nicholas, "Decoded at last: the 'classical holy grail' that may rewrite the history of the world", The Independent (UK), 17 April 2005, "Scientists begin to unlock the secrets of papyrus scraps bearing long-lost words by the literary giants of Greece and Rome ..."
- Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach. 1867
- Sir Hugh Lloyd-Jones (ed.) Sophocles. Ajax. Electra. Oedipus Tyrannus, Harvard University Press, 1994.
- Scott Scullion, Tragic dates, Classical Quarterly, new sequence 52 (2002) 81-101.
- Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1870, "Sophocles", p.864.
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