मुन्धुम

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नाक्छोङ, किराँत गुभाजु

मुन्धुम नेपामि किराँत(राई, लिम्बू, सुनुवार आदि) जातिया धर्म ख।[१] थ्व संस्कारयात "किराँत वेद" नं धायेगु या।[२][३][४] [५] टम वुदह्याच थें जापिं छुं विद्वान कथं थ्व संस्कृति एनिमिजम (दसु- पुर्खा पुजा (सुम्निमा/पारोहाङ)[६]), शैव[७], व बौद्ध धर्मया समिश्रण ख[७]। थ्व धर्म नेपाःया थ्यंमथ्यं ३.६% जनसंख्यां हनि[८]। थ्व धर्मयात नेपाःया तथ्याङ्कय् आधिकारिकता बी न्ह्यः किराँत जनसंख्याया ३६% जनतां थ्व धर्म हनिगु या धाःसा थ्व धर्मयात राज्यया तथ्याङ्कं मान्यता बी धुंका ७३.९% किराँत जनसंख्यां थ्व धर्म हनिगु यात। अतः, नेपामि किराँत जनसंख्याय् थ्व धर्म १५७% वृद्धि जुल [१]

खँग्वःया अर्थ[सम्पादन]

मुन्धुमया किराँत भाषाय् शाब्दिक अर्थ "तःधंगु बलया शक्ति" ख। [९]

मुन्धुमया बायेज्या[सम्पादन]

मुन्धुम निगु भागय् बायातगु दु[१०]-

  • थुङसाप व
  • पेइसाप

थुङसाप मुन्धुम च्वेगु विकास जुइ न्ह्यः मौखिक रुपं म्वानाच्वन। थ्व मुन्धुम साम्बा(साम्=मे, बा=मिजं) धापिं गुभाजुतेसँ मेया रुपय् हालिगु या। t पेइसाप मुन्धुम धर्मया बारेय् च्वयातःगु सफू ख। थ्व प्यंगु भागय् बायातःगु दु। थ्व भाग ख-

  • सोकसोक मुन्धुम,
  • येहाङ मुन्धुम,
  • सापजि मुन्धुम, व
  • साप मुन्धुम।

The Soksok Mundhum contains the stories of creation of the universe, the beginning of mankind, the cause and effect of the sins, the creation of evil spirits, such as the evil spirits of Envy, Jealousy and Anger and the cause and effect of death in childhood.

मुन्धुमया प्रकार[सम्पादन]

दक्ले न्हापांगु मुन्धुम प्राचीन किराँत भाषाय् च्वयातःगु दु। किराँत जाति कथं मुन्धुमया भाषा व संस्करण पाः। [११]


थुङसाप मुन्धुम[सम्पादन]

The Thungsap Mundhum was collected, preserved and passed on by word of mouth and folklore until the art of writing was introduced.[१०] It was an epic composed and recited in the form of songs by Sambas, or religious poets and bards. The Kirat priests in the beginning were called the Sambas where Sam means song and Ba means the one (male) who knows the Sam.[१०]

पेइसाप मुन्धुम[सम्पादन]

The Peysap Mundhum is a written book about religion. It is divided into four parts — the Soksok Mundhum, Yehang Mundhum, Sapji Mundhum and Sap Mundhum.[१०] The Soksok Mundhum contains the stories of creation of the universe, the beginning of mankind, the cause and effect of the sins, the creation of evil spirits, such as the evil spirits of envy, jealousy and anger and the cause and effect of death in childhood.

The Yehang Mundhum contains the story of the first leader of mankind who made laws for the sake of improvement of human beings from the stage of animal life to the enlightened life and ways to control them by giving philosophy on spiritualism. In this book, the leader has made rules for marriage, arbitration, purification and religion.[१०] The story of destruction of human beings by deluge and the cause of existence of many languages among the Kirat people, the social customs of seasonal worship to the worship of God, the rules of purification on child birth and death are mentioned in the Lepmuhang Mundhum.[१०]

As the Kirat people in the beginning were rationalistic idolaters, they neither had temples, altars nor images, conceiving that none of these was necessary, but that the God resided in light and fire.[१०] Hence, they worshiped spirits whom they believe to be the residents of fire and the sun. So according to Sapji Mundhum, the spirits are of two classes: the Good Spirit and the Bad Spirit.

  • The Good Spirit
  • The Bad Spirit
  • The Inspiring Spirit
  • The Tantric Feat in Kirat Mundhum
  • The Spirit of Envy and Jealousy[१०]

Mundhum is a spiritual, rhythmic and shamanic form of scripture. Mundhum rituals and teachings are only used and performed by a Kirat religious master or shamanic guru of Kirant.

The Yehang Mundhum contains the story of the first leader of mankind who made laws for the sake of improvement of human beings from the stage of animal life to the enlightened life and ways to control them by giving philosophy on spiritualism. In this book, the leader has made rules for marriage, arbitration, purification and religion. The story of destruction of human beings by deluge and the cause of existence of many languages among the Kirat people, the social customs of seasonal worship to the worship of God, the rules of purification on child birth and death are mentioned in the Lepmuhang Mundhum.

व्यवहार[सम्पादन]

किराँततेसँ शमनवादय् विश्वास या। थ्व जातिया परम्परा आपालं प्रकृति व पुर्वज पुजाय् केन्द्रित दु। सकल थें हे धार्मिक पर्व नाक्छोङ वा किराँती गुभाजुं यायेगु या।

Their supreme deity "Tagera Nyingmaphuma" is personified as Lord Shiva.[१२]

Many followers wear a Tilak on the forehead, like in Hinduism, when they recite their sacred text (Kiranti Veda.)[१३]

लिधँसा[सम्पादन]

  1. १.० १.१ final layout pdf.p65
  2. P. 56 Kiratese at a Glance By Gopal Man Tandukar
  3. P. xxv A Grammar of Limbu By George van Driem
  4. Problems of Modern Indian Literature by Statistical Pub. Society: distributor, K. P. Bagchi
  5. P. 323 Kiratas in Ancient India By G. P. Singh, Dhaneswar Kalita, V Sudarsen, M A Kalam
  6. "History and Culture of the Kirat" by I.M.Chemjong
  7. ७.० ७.१ P. 535 Nepal By Tom Woodhatch
  8. http://www.cbs.gov.np/Nepal%20in%20figure/nepal%20in%20figures%202006.pdf
  9. Hardman, Charlotte E. (December 2000). John Gledhill, Barbara Bender, and Bruce Kapferer (eds.) Other Worlds: Notions of Self and Emotion among the Lohorung Rai. Berg Publishers, 104–.
  10. १०.० १०.१ १०.२ १०.३ १०.४ १०.५ १०.६ १०.७ Cemjoṅga, Īmāna Siṃha (2003). History and Culture of the Kirat People. Kirat Yakthung Chumlung.
  11. Monika Bock, Aparna Rao. Culture, Creation, and Procreation: Concepts of Kinship in South Asian Practice. Page 65. 2000, Berghahn Books.
  12. P. 107 Politics of Culture:A study of three Kirata communities in the Eastern Himalayas by T.B. Subba
  13. P. 282 Patrika: Newsletter of the Indian Academy of Sciences By Vivekananda Kendra, Indian Academy of Sciences

स्वयादिसँ[सम्पादन]

पिनेया स्वापू[सम्पादन]