हिप्पोक्रेटस

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हिप्पोक्रेटस कोसमि

(प्राचीन यवन: Ἱπποκράτης)

Hippocrates rubens.jpg
Engraving by Peter Paul Rubens, 1638, courtesy of the National Library of Medicine.[१]
बूगु करिब ४६० इ पू
कोस, यवन
मदूगु करिब ३७० इ पू
लारिसा, यवन
ज्या चिकित्सक

हिप्पोक्रेटस कोसमि (ca. 460 BC – ca. 370 BC) - यवन: Ἱπποκράτης; पेरिकल्सया युगया छम्ह प्राचीन युनानी चिकित्सक ख। वय्‌कःयात चिकित्साया इतिहासया दक्ले विलक्षण व्यक्तित्वय् छम्हया कथं नालेगु या। वय्‌कःयात चिकित्साया अबुया कथं नं नालेगु या। [२] [३] [४] वय्कःया बौद्धिक स्कुलं प्राचीन यवनया चिकित्साय् हिउपा हल। वय्कःया स्कुलं चिकित्सायात छगू निश्चित विधाया रुपय् पलिस्था यात व थुकियात विचाः व चिन्तनं सीमांकृत यात। थ्व कथं वय्कलं चिकित्सायात छगू बौद्धिक व्यवसाय दयेकादिल। [५][६]

वय्कःया च्वसु व वय्कः धुंकाया वय्कःया पद्धति छ्यलिपिं चिकित्सकतयेगु च्वसु ल्वाकज्या। थुकियात मंका कथं हिपोक्र्याटिक ग्रन्थ धाइगु या। च्वसु ल्वाकज्यागुलिं वय्कःया चिकित्सा सम्बन्धि विचा, वय्कःया व्यक्तिगत अनुभूति आदि थें न्याःगु वय्कःया चिकित्सा जीवनया पक्ष धाःसा प्रस्ट मजु। अथेजुसां, हिप्पोक्रेटसयात प्राचीन चिकित्साया सर्वोच्च चिकित्सकया रुपय् नालेगु या। निश्चित कथं वय्कःयात क्लिनिकल चिकित्साया व्यवस्थापित अध्ययनया निंतिं, वय्कः स्वया न्हापा चिकित्साया ज्ञानया सार दयेकेत व चिकित्सकतयेगु सपथ हिपोक्र्याटिक ओथ आदिया निंतिं लुमंकिगु या। [५] [७]

जीवनी[सम्पादन]

इतिहासकारकथं हिप्पोक्रेटसया जन्म करिब ४६० इपूइ यवनी टापू कोसय् जूगु ख। वय्कः छम्ह नांजाम्ह चिकित्सक व चिकित्साया गुरु जुयादिल। वय्कःया बारेय् यक्व जनश्रुतित दु। थन्यागु सकल जनश्रुति पाय्छि मजुइफु यक्व सम्भावना दु। [८] इफेसनसया सोरानस, छम्ह २गु शताब्दीया यवन गाइनेकोलोजिस्ट, [९] वय्कःया न्हापांम्ह बायोग्राफर ख। हिप्पोक्रेटसया मानवीय रुपया जानकारीया प्रमुख स्रोत वय्कः हे ख। हिप्पोक्रेटसया बारेय् एरिस्टोटलया च्वसुइ नं उल्लेख जुगु दु। ४गु शताब्दी ईपूया सुदा निसें १०गु शताब्दी इसंतक्क व १२गु शताब्दीया जन Tzetzesया ज्याय् वय्कःया वर्णन लूगु दु। [५][१०]

Soranus wrote that Hippocrates' father was Heraclides, a physician; his mother was Praxitela, daughter of Tizane. The two sons of Hippocrates, Thessalus and Draco, and his son-in-law, Polybus, were his students. According to Galen, a later physician, Polybus was Hippocrates' true successor, while Thessalus and Draco each had a son named Hippocrates.[११][१२]

Soranus said that Hippocrates learned medicine from his father and grandfather, and studied other subjects with Democritus and Gorgias. Hippocrates was probably trained at the asklepieion of Kos, and took lessons from the Thracian physician Herodicus of Selymbria. The only contemporaneous mention of Hippocrates is in Plato's dialogue Protagoras, where Plato describes Hippocrates as "Hippocrates of Kos, the Asclepiad".[१३][१४] Hippocrates taught and practiced medicine throughout his life, traveling at least as far as Thessaly, Thrace, and the Sea of Marmara.[१२] He probably died in Larissa at the age of 83 or 90, though some accounts say he lived to be well over 100; several different accounts of his death exist.[१२]

हिप्पोक्रेटिक सिद्धान्त[सम्पादन]

"It is thus with regard divine nor more sacred than other diseases, but has a natural cause from the originates like other affections. Men regard its nature and cause as divine from ignorance and wonder..."

On the Sacred Disease[१५]

हिप्पोक्रेटसयात दैवी शक्ति, बाखं व आलौकिक प्रभावय् विश्वास मयाइम्ह म्हापांम्ह चिकित्सकया रुपय् नालेगु या। वय्कःयात पाइथागोरसया शिष्यतयेसं चिन्तन व चिकित्सा एकिकृतयाःगु श्रेय बियातःगु दु। [१६] वय्कलं चिकित्सायात धर्म स्वया पृथक तयादिल व ल्वेयात द्यःतयेगु श्राप मजुसें वातावरणीय प्रभाव, नसाः व प्राणीतयेगु अन्तरक्रियाया परिणामया रुपय् ब्वयादिल। सकल हिप्पोक्रेटिक ग्रन्थय् छगू नं थासय् दैवी शक्तिया वा दैवी ल्वेया वर्णन मदु। अथेजुसां व ईया विज्ञान आपालं विकास मजुगुलिं वय्कःया यक्व सिद्धान्त व विश्वास थौं वया पाय्छि मजूगु खनेदु। दसु- वय्कःया एनाटोमी व फिजियोलोजी, ह्युमोरिजमया सिद्धान्त आदि पाय्छि मजूगु प्रमाणित जुइ धुंकल। [१७][१८][१९]

प्राचीन यवन चिकित्सा ब्वंकुथि ल्वेयात निदान यायेगु पद्धतिइ निगु पुचः, निदियान (Knidian) व कोआन(Koan)य् विभक्त जूगु खनेदु। निदियान पुचः डायग्नोसिसय् अप्व केन्द्रित जूगु खनेदु। Medicine at the time of Hippocrates knew almost nothing of human anatomy and physiology because of the Greek taboo forbidding the dissection of humans. The Knidian school consequently failed to distinguish when one disease caused many possible series of symptoms.[२०] The Hippocratic school or Koan school achieved greater success by applying general diagnoses and passive treatments. Its focus was on patient care and prognosis, not diagnosis. It could effectively treat diseases and allowed for a great development in clinical practice.[२१][२२]

Hippocratic medicine and its philosophy are far removed from that of modern medicine. Now, the physician focuses on specific diagnosis and specialized treatment, both of which were espoused by the Knidian school. This shift in medical thought since Hippocrates' day has caused serious criticism over the past two millennia, with the passivity of Hippocratic treatment being the subject of particularly strong denunciations; for example, the French doctor M. S. Houdart called the Hippocratic treatment a "meditation upon death".[२३]

Humorism and crisis[सम्पादन]

मू च्वसु: Humorism

The Hippocratic school held that all illness was the result of an imbalance in the body of the four humours, fluids which in health were naturally equal in proportion (pepsis).[२४] When the four humours, blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm, were not in balance (dyscrasia, meaning "bad mixture"), a person would become sick and remain that way until the balance was somehow restored. Hippocratic therapy was directed towards restoring this balance. For instance, using citrus was thought to be beneficial when phlegm was overabundant.[२५]

Another important concept in Hippocratic medicine was that of a crisis, a point in the progression of disease at which either the illness would begin to triumph and the patient would succumb to death, or the opposite would occur and natural processes would make the patient recover. After a crisis, a relapse might follow, and then another deciding crisis. According to this doctrine, crises tend to occur on critical days, which were supposed to be a fixed time after the contraction of a disease. If a crisis occurred on a day far from a critical day, a relapse might be expected. Galen believed that this idea originated with Hippocrates, though it is possible that it predated him.[२६]

A drawing of a Hippocratic bench from a Byzantine edition of Galen's work in the 2nd century AD

Hippocratic medicine was humble and passive. The therapeutic approach was based on "the healing power of nature" ("vis medicatrix naturae" in Latin). According to this doctrine, the body contains within itself the power to re-balance the four humours and heal itself (physis).[२४] Hippocratic therapy focused on simply easing this natural process. To this end, Hippocrates believed "rest and immobilization [were] of capital importance".[२७] In general, the Hippocratic medicine was very kind to the patient; treatment was gentle, and emphasized keeping the patient clean and sterile. For example, only clean water or wine were ever used on wounds, though "dry" treatment was preferable. Soothing balms were sometimes employed.[२८]

Hippocrates was reluctant to administer drugs and engage in specialized treatment that might prove to be wrongly chosen; generalized therapy followed a generalized diagnosis.[२८][२९] Potent drugs were, however, used on certain occasions.[३०] This passive approach was very successful in treating relatively simple ailments such as broken bones which required traction to stretch the skeletal system and relieve pressure on the injured area. The Hippocratic bench and other devices were used to this end.

One of the strengths of Hippocratic medicine was its emphasis on prognosis. At Hippocrates' time, medicinal therapy was quite immature, and often the best thing that physicians could do was to evaluate an illness and induce its likely progression based upon data collected in detailed case histories.[१९][३१]

Professionalism[सम्पादन]

A number of ancient Greek surgical tools. On the left is a trephine; on the right, a set of scalpels. Hippocratic medicine made good use of these tools.[३२]

Hippocratic medicine was notable for its strict professionalism, discipline and rigorous practice.[३३] The Hippocratic work On the Physician recommends that physicians always be well-kempt, honest, calm, understanding, and serious. The Hippocratic physician paid careful attention to all aspects of his practice: he followed detailed specifications for, "lighting, personnel, instruments, positioning of the patient, and techniques of bandaging and splinting" in the ancient operating room.[३४] He even kept his fingernails to a precise length.[३५]

The Hippocratic School gave importance to the clinical doctrines of observation and documentation. These doctrines dictate that physicians record their findings and their medicinal methods in a very clear and objective manner, so that these records may be passed down and employed by other physicians.[३६] Hippocrates made careful, regular note of many symptoms including complexion, pulse, fever, pains, movement, and excretions.[३१] He is said to have measured a patient's pulse when taking a case history to know if the patient lied.[३७] Hippocrates extended clinical observations into family history and environment.[३८] "To him medicine owes the art of clinical inspection and observation".[१९] For this reason, he may more properly be termed as the "Father of Clinical Medicine".[३९]

चिकित्साय् प्रत्यक्ष योगदान[सम्पादन]

आइजनमाइनर सिन्द्रमया ल्वमिया पतिंइ खनेदूगु क्लबिङ। क्लबिङ दकले न्ह्यः हिप्पोक्रेटसं वर्णन यानादिगु ख। क्लबिङयात "हिप्पोक्र्याटिक पतिं" नं धाइगु या।

हिप्पोक्रेटस व वय्कःया चेलातयेसं यक्व ल्वेया दकले प्रारम्भिक वर्णन यानादिगु दु। वय्कःयात दकले न्ह्यः क्लबिङया वर्णनया श्रेय बियातःगु दु। थ्व अवस्था क्रोनिक सुपोरेटिभ लङ्ग दिजिज, सों क्यान्सर, व सायनोटिक हार्ट दिजिजय् खनेदु। थ्व कारणं क्लबिङयात हिप्पोक्र्याटिक पतिं नं धाइगु या। [४०] हिप्पोक्रेटस प्रोग्नोसिसय् हिप्पोक्रेटिक ख्वा वर्णन यानादिम्ह न्हापांम्ह चिकित्सक ख।

Hippocrates began to categorize illnesses as acute, chronic, endemic and epidemic, and use terms such as, "exacerbation, relapse, resolution, crisis, paroxysm, peak, and convalescence."[३१][४१] Another of Hippocrates' major contributions may be found in his descriptions of the symptomatology, physical findings, surgical treatment and prognosis of thoracic empyema, i.e. suppuration of the lining of the chest cavity. His teachings remain relevant to present-day students of pulmonary medicine and surgery.[४२] Hippocrates was the first documented chest surgeon and his findings are still valid.[४२]

The Hippocratic school of medicine described well the ailments of the human rectum and the treatment thereof, despite the school's poor theory of medicine. Hemorrhoids, for instance, though believed to be caused by an excess of bile and phlegm, were treated by Hippocratic physicians in relatively advanced ways.[४३][४४] Cautery and excision are described in the Hippocratic Corpus, in addition to the preferred methods: ligating the hemorrhoids and drying them with a hot iron. Other treatments such as applying various salves are suggested as well.[४५][४६] Today, "treatment [for hemorrhoids] still includes burning, strangling, and excising".[४३] Also, some of the fundamental concepts of proctoscopy outlined in the Corpus are still in use.[४३][४४] For example, the uses of the rectal speculum, a common medical device, are discussed in the Hippocratic Corpus. [४४] This constitutes the earliest recorded reference to endoscopy.[४७][४८]

Hippocratic Corpus[सम्पादन]

मू पौ: Hippocratic Corpus
A twelfth-century Byzantine manuscript of the Oath in the form of a cross

The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum) is a collection of around seventy early medical works from ancient Greece, written in Ionic Greek. The question of whether Hippocrates himself was the author of the corpus has not been conclusively answered,[४९] but the volumes were probably produced by his students and followers.[५०] Because of the variety of subjects, writing styles and apparent date of construction, scholars believe Hippocratic Corpus could not have been written by one person (Ermerins numbers the authors at nineteen)[३०]. The corpus was attributed to Hippocrates in antiquity, and its teaching generally followed principles of his; thus it came to be known by his name. It might be the remains of a library of Kos, or a collection compiled in the 3rd century BC in Alexandria.[३४][१३]

The Hippocratic Corpus contains textbooks, lectures, research, notes and philosophical essays on various subjects in medicine, in no particular order.[४९][५१] These works were written for different audiences, both specialists and laymen, and were sometimes written from opposing view points; significant contradictions can be found between works in the Corpus.[५२] Notable among the treatises of the Corpus are The Hippocratic Oath; The Book of Prognostics; On Regimen in Acute Diseases; Aphorisms; On Airs, Waters and Places; Instruments of Reduction; On The Sacred Disease; etc.[३०]

Hippocratic Oath[सम्पादन]

मू च्वसु: Hippocratic Oath

The Hippocratic Oath, a seminal document on the ethics of medical practice, was attributed to Hippocrates in antiquity. This is probably the most famous document of the Hippocratic Corpus. Recently the authenticity of the document has come under scrutiny. While the Oath is rarely used in its original form today, it serves as a foundation for other, similar oaths and laws that define good medical practice and morals. Such derivatives are regularly taken today by medical graduates about to enter medical practice.[५३][१३]

Legacy[सम्पादन]

Mural painting showing Galen and Hippocrates. 12th century; Anagni, Italy

Hippocrates is widely considered to be the "Father of Medicine".[५०] His contributions revolutionized the practice of medicine; but after his death the advancement stalled.[५४] So revered was Hippocrates that his teachings were largely taken as too great to be improved upon and no significant advancements of his methods were made for a long time.[१३][२७] The centuries after Hippocrates' death were marked as much by retrograde movement as by further advancement. For instance, "after the Hippocratic period, the practice of taking clinical case-histories died out...", according to Fielding Garrison.[५५]

After Hippocrates, the next significant physician was Galen, a Greek who lived from 129 to 200 AD. Galen perpetuated Hippocratic medicine, moving both forward and backward and side to side.[५६] In the Middle Ages, Arabs adopted Hippocratic methods.[५७] After the European Renaissance, Hippocratic methods were revived in Europe and even further expanded in the 19th century. Notable among those who employed Hippocrates' rigorous clinical techniques were Sydenham, Heberden, Charcot and Osler. Henri Huchard, a French physician, said that these revivals make up "the whole history of internal medicine".[५८]

Image[सम्पादन]

A conventionalized image in a Roman "portrait" bust (19th century engraving)

According to Aristotle's testimony, Hippocrates was known as "the Great Hippocrates".[५९] Concerning his disposition, Hippocrates was first portrayed as a "kind, dignified, old country doctor'" and later as "stern and forbidding".[१३] He is certainly considered wise, of very great intellect and especially as very practical. Francis Adams describes him as "strictly the physician of experience and common sense".[२०]

His image as the wise, old doctor is reinforced by busts of him, which wear large beards on a wrinkled face. Many physicians of the time wore their hair in the style of Jove and Asklepius. Accordingly, the busts of Hippocrates that we have could be only altered versions of portraits of these deities.[५४] Hippocrates and the beliefs that he embodied are considered medical ideals. Fielding Garrison, an authority on medical history, stated, "He is, above all, the exemplar of that flexible, critical, well-poised attitude of mind, ever on the lookout for sources of error, which is the very essence of the scientific spirit".[५८] "His figure... stands for all time as that of the ideal physician”, according to A Short History of Medicine, inspiring the medical profession since his death.[६०]

Legends[सम्पादन]

"Life is short, [the] art long, opportunity fleeting, experiment treacherous, judgment difficult."

Aphorisms i.1.

Most stories of Hippocrates' life are likely to be untrue because of their inconsistency with historical evidence, and because similar or identical stories are told of other figures such as Avicenna and Socrates, suggesting a legendary origin. Even during his life, Hippocrates' renown was great, and stories of miraculous cures arose. For example, Hippocrates was supposed to have aided in the healing of Athenians during the Plague of Athens by lighting great fires as "disinfectants" and engaging in other treatments. There is a story of Hippocrates curing Perdiccas, a Macedonian king, of "love sickness". Neither of these accounts is corroborated by any historians and they are thus unlikely to have ever occurred.[६१][६२][६३]

Kos town: The Plane Tree of Hippocrates, under which Hippocrates is said to have worked.[६४]

Another legend concerns how Hippocrates rejected a formal request to visit the court of Artaxerxes, the King of Persia.[६५] The validity of this is accepted by ancient sources but denied by some modern ones, and is thus under contention.[६६] Another tale states that Democritus was supposed to be mad because he laughed at everything, and so he was sent to Hippocrates to be cured. Hippocrates diagnosed him as having a merely happy disposition. Democritus has since been called "the laughing philosopher".[६७]

Not all stories of Hippocrates portrayed him in a positive manner. In one legend, Hippocrates is said to have fled after setting fire to a healing temple in Greece. Soranus of Ephesus, the source of this story, names the temple as the one of Knidos. However centuries later, the Byzantine Greek grammarian John Tzetzes, writes that Hippocrates burned down his own temple, the Temple of Cos, speculating that he did it to maintain a monopoly of medical knowledge. This account is very much in conflict with traditional estimations of Hippocrates' personality. Other legends tell of his resurrection of Augustus's nephew; this feat was supposedly created by the erection of a statue of Hippocrates and the establishment of a professorship in his honor in Rome.[६३][६१][३६][६८]

Genealogy[सम्पादन]

Hippocrates' legendary genealogy traces his paternal heritage directly to Asklepius and his maternal ancestry to Heracles.[३०] According to Tzetzes's Chiliades, the ahnentafel of Hippocrates II is:[६९]

An image of Hippocrates on the floor of the Asclepieion of Kos, with Asklepius in the middle

1. Hippocrates II. “The Father of Medicine”
2. Heraclides
4. Hippocrates I.
8. Gnosidicus
16. Nebrus
32. Sostratus III.
64. Theodorus II.
128. Sostratus, II.
256. Thedorus
512. Cleomyttades
1024. Crisamis
2048. Dardanus
4096. Sostatus
8192. Hippolochus
16384. Podalirius
32768. Asklepius

Namesakes[सम्पादन]

Some clinical symptoms and signs have been named after Hippocrates as he is believed to be the first person to describe those. Hippocratic face is the change produced in the countenance by death, or long sickness, excessive evacuations, excessive hunger, and the like. Clubbing, a deformity of the fingers and fingernails, is also known as Hippocratic fingers. Hippocratic succussion is the internal splashing noise of hydropneumothorax or pyopneumothorax. Hippocratic bench (a device which uses tension to aid in setting bones) and Hippocratic cap-shaped bandage are two devices named after Hippocrates.[७०] Hippocratic Corpus and Hippocratic Oath are also his namesakes. The drink hypocras is also believed to be invented by Hippocrates. Risus sardonicus, a sustained spasming of the face muscles may also be termed the Hippocratic Smile.

In the modern age, a lunar crater has been named Hippocrates. The Hippocratic Museum, a museum on the Greek island of Kos is dedicated to him. The Hippocrates Project is a program of the New York University Medical Center to enhance education through use of technology. Project Hippocrates (an acronym of "HIgh PerfOrmance Computing for Robot-AssisTEd Surgery") is an effort of the Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science and Shadyside Medical Center, "to develop advanced planning, simulation, and execution technologies for the next generation of computer-assisted surgical robots."[७१] Both the Canadian Hippocratic Registry and American Hippocratic Registry are organizations of physicians who uphold the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath as inviolable through changing social times.

Notes[सम्पादन]

  1. National Library of Medicine 2006
  2. Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus., U.S. National Library of Medicine
  3. Hippocrates, Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Microsoft Corporation.
  4. Strong, W.F. & Cook, John A. (July 2007), "Reviving the Dead Greek Guys", Global Media Journal, Indian Edition, ISSN: 1550-7521, <http://www.manipal.edu/gmj/issues/jul07/strong.php> 
  5. ५.० ५.१ ५.२ Garrison 1966, p. 92–93
  6. Nuland 1988, p. 5
  7. Garrison 1966, p. 96
  8. Nuland 1988, p. 4
  9. Britannica 2006
  10. Nuland 1988, p. 7
  11. Adams 1891, p. 19
  12. १२.० १२.१ १२.२ Margotta 1968, p. 66
  13. १३.० १३.१ १३.२ १३.३ १३.४ Martí-Ibáñez 1961, p. 86–87
  14. Plato 380 B.C.
  15. Plato 400 B.C.
  16. Adams 1891, p. 4
  17. Jones 1868, p. 11
  18. Nuland 1988, p. 8–9
  19. १९.० १९.१ १९.२ Garrison 1966, p. 93–94
  20. २०.० २०.१ Adams 1891, p. 15
  21. Margotta 1968, p. 67
  22. Leff & Leff 1956, p. 51
  23. Jones 1868, p. 12–13
  24. २४.० २४.१ Garrison 1966, p. 99
  25. Boylan 2006
  26. Jones 1868, p. 46,48,59
  27. २७.० २७.१ Margotta 1968, p. 73
  28. २८.० २८.१ Garrison 1966, p. 98
  29. Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 35
  30. ३०.० ३०.१ ३०.२ ३०.३ Encyclopedia Britannica 1911
  31. ३१.० ३१.१ ३१.२ Garrison 1966, p. 97
  32. Adams 1891, p. 17
  33. Garrison 1966
  34. ३४.० ३४.१ Margotta 1968, p. 64
  35. Rutkow 1993, p. 24–25
  36. ३६.० ३६.१ Margotta 1968, p. 66
  37. Martí-Ibáñez 1961, p. 88
  38. Margotta 1968, p. 68
  39. Leff & Leff 1956, p. 45
  40. Schwartz, Richards & Goyal 2006
  41. Martí-Ibáñez 1961, p. 90
  42. ४२.० ४२.१ Major 1965
  43. ४३.० ४३.१ ४३.२ Jóhannsson 2005, p. 11
  44. ४४.० ४४.१ ४४.२ Jani 2005, p. 24–25
  45. Jóhannsson 2005, p. 12
  46. Mann 2002, p. 1, 173
  47. Shah 2002, p. 645
  48. NCEPOD 2004, p. 4
  49. ४९.० ४९.१ Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 27
  50. ५०.० ५०.१ Hanson 2006
  51. Rutkow, p. 23
  52. Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 28
  53. Jones 1868, p. 217
  54. ५४.० ५४.१ Garrison 1966, p. 100
  55. Garrison 1966, p. 95
  56. Jones 1868, p. 35
  57. Leff & Leff 1956, p. 102
  58. ५८.० ५८.१ Garrison 1966, p. 94
  59. Jones 1868, p. 38
  60. Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 29
  61. ६१.० ६१.१ Adams 1891, p. 10–11
  62. Jones 1868, p. 37
  63. ६३.० ६३.१ Smith 1870, p. 483
  64. National Library of Medicine 2000
  65. Pinault 1992, p. 1
  66. Adams 1891, p. 12–13
  67. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2006
  68. Jones 1868, p. 24
  69. Adams 1891
  70. Fishchenko & Khimich 1986
  71. Project Hippocrates 1995

References[सम्पादन]

हिप्पोक्रेटस यागु बारेय् अप्व जानकारी फुकी ज्याझ्वय् कयादिसं:

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A woodcut of the reduction of a dislocated shoulder with a Hippocratic device

Further reading[सम्पादन]


Persondata
नां Hippocrates of Kos
मेमेगु नां Ἱπποκράτης (Greek)
चीहाकःगु विवरण Physician
बुगु तिथि ca. 460 BC
बुगु थाय् Kos, Greece
मदुगु तिथि ca. 370 BC
मदुगु थाय् Kos, Greece
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विकिमिडिया मंका य् थ्व विषय नाप स्वापु दुगु मिडिया दु: