हर्निया धागु तन्तु, स्ट्रक्चर वा अंगयागु पार्टयु, उकियात भुनातगु मस्कुलर तन्तु वा मेम्ब्रेनं प्रोट्युजन जुइगु खः (definition from MeSH)। हर्नियायु स्वम्गु पार्ट दै: ओरिफिस , हर्नियल स्याक, व उकिगु कन्टेन्ट।
A hernia may be likened to a failure in the sidewall of a pneumatic tire. The tire's inner tube behaves like the organ and the sidewall like the body cavity wall providing the restraint. A weakness in the sidewall allows a bulge to develop, which can become a split, allowing the inner tube to protrude, and leading to the eventual failure of the tire.
By far most hernias develop in the abdomen, when a weakness in the abdominal wall evolves into a localized hole, or "defect", through which adipose tissue, or abdominal organs covered with peritoneum, may protrude. Another common hernia involves the intervertebral disc, and causes back pain or sciatica.
Hernias may present either with pain at the site, a visible or palpable lump, or in some cases by more vague symptoms resulting from pressure on an organ which has become "stuck" in the hernia, sometimes leading to organ dysfunction. Fatty tissue usually enters a hernia first, but it may be followed by or accompanied by an organ.
Most of the time, hernias develop when pressure in the compartment of the residing organ is increased, and the boundary is weak or weakened.
- Weakening of containing membranes or muscles is usually congenital (which explains part of the tendency of hernias to run in families), and increases with age (for example, degeneration of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc), but it may be on the basis of other illnesses, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or Marfan syndrome, stretching of muscles during pregnancy, losing weight in obese people, etc., or because of scars from previous surgery.
- Many conditions chronically increase intra-abdominal pressure, (pregnancy, ascites, COPD, dyschezia, benign prostatic hypertrophy) and hence abdominal hernias are very frequent. Increased intracranial pressure can cause parts of the brain to herniate through narrowed portions of the cranial cavity or through the foramen magnum. Increased pressure on the intervertebral discs, as produced by heavy lifting or lifting with improper technique, increases the risk of herniation.
Between 1995 and 2005, 16,742 Americans died from a hernia.
हर्नियायात इमिगु एनाटोमिकल थाय् कथलं बाये छिं:
- एब्डोमिनल हर्निया
- डायफ्र्याग्म्याटिक हर्निया व हायाटल हर्निया (दसु, स्टोम्याकयु प्याराइसोफेजियल हर्निया)
- पेल्भिक हर्निया, दसु, अब्टुरेटर हर्निया
- इन्टरभर्टिब्रज डिस्कयु न्युक्लियस पल्पोसस् यागु हर्निया
- इन्ट्राक्रेनियल हर्निया
Each of the above hernias may be characterised by several aspects:
- कन्जेनाइटल वा एक्वायर्ड: congenital hernias occur prenatally or in the first year(s) of life, and are caused by a congenital defect, whereas acquired hernias develop later on in life. However, this may be on the basis of a locus minoris resistentiae (Lat. place of least resistance) that is congenital, but only becomes symptomatic later on in life, when degeneration and increased stress (for example, increased abdominal pressure from coughing in COPD) provoke the hernia.
- कम्प्लिट वा इन्कम्प्लिट: for example, the stomach may partially herniate into the chest, or completely.
- इन्टर्नल वा एक्स्टर्नल: external ones herniate to the outside world, whereas internal hernias protrude from their normal compartment to another (for example, mesenteric hernias).
- इन्ट्रापरायटल हर्निया: hernia that does not reach all the way to the subcutis, but only to the musculoaponeurotic layer. An example is a Spigelian hernia. Intraparietal hernias may produces less obvious bulging, and may be less easily detected on clinical examination.
- बाइल्याटरल: in this case, simultaneous repair may be considered, sometimes even with a giant prosthetic reinforcement.
- रिड्युसिबल वा इरिड्युसिबल (also known as incarcerated): the hernial contents can or cannot be returned to their normal site with simple manipulation
If irreducible, hernias can develop several complications (hence, they can be complicated or uncomplicated):
- स्ट्र्यांगुलेटेड: pressure on the hernial contents may compromise blood supply (especially veins, with their low pressure, are sensitive, and venous congestion often results) and cause ischemia, and later necrosis and gangrene, which may become fatal.
- अब्स्ट्रक्सन: for example, when a part of the bowel herniates, bowel contents can no longer pass the obstruction. This results in cramps, and later on vomiting, ileus, absence of flatus and absence of defecation. These signs mandate urgent surgery.
- another complication arises when the herniated organ itself, or surrounding organs start dysfunctioning (for example, sliding hernia of the stomach causing heartburn, lumbar disc hernia causing sciatic nerve pain, etc.)
It is generally advisable to repair hernias in a timely fashion, in order to prevent complications such as organ dysfunction, gangrene, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Most abdominal hernias can be surgically repaired, and recovery rarely requires long-term changes in lifestyle. Uncomplicated hernias are principally repaired by pushing back, or "reducing", the herniated tissue, and then mending the weakness in muscle tissue (an operation called herniorraphy). If complications have occurred, the surgeon will check the viability of the herniated organ, and resect it if necessary. Modern muscle reinforcement techniques involve synthetic materials (a mesh prosthesis) that avoid over-stretching of already weakened tissue (as in older, but still useful methods). The mesh is placed over the defect, and sometimes staples are used to keep the mesh in place. Increasingly, some repairs are performed through laparoscopes.
Many patients are managed through surgical daycare centers, and are able to return to work within a week or two, while heavy activities are prohibited for a longer period. Surgical complications have been estimated to be up to 10%, but most of them can be easily addressed. They include surgical site infections, nerve and blood vessel injuries, injury to nearby organs, and hernia recurrence.
Generally, the use of external devices to maintain reduction of the hernia without repairing the underlying defect (such as hernia trusses, trunks, belts, etc.), is not advised. Exceptions are uncomplicated incisional hernias that arise shortly after the operation (should only be operated after a few months), or inoperable patients.
It is essential that the hernia not be further irritated by carrying out strenuous labour.
Individual hernias [सम्पादन]
इन्गुइनल हर्निया [सम्पादन]
- Main article: इन्गुइनल हर्निया.
By far the most common hernias (up to 75% of all abdominal hernias) are the so-called inguinal hernias. For a thorough understanding of inguinal hernias, much insight is needed in the anatomy of the inguinal canal. Inguinal hernias are further divided into the more common indirect inguinal hernia (2/3, depicted here), in which the inguinal canal is entered via a congenital weakness at its entrance (the internal inguinal ring), and the direct inguinal hernia type (1/3), where the hernia contents push through a weak spot in the back wall of the inguinal canal. Inguinal hernias are more common in men than women while femoral hernias are more common in women.
फेमोरल हर्निया [सम्पादन]
- मू च्वसु: फेमोरल हर्निया.
Femoral hernias occur just below the inguinal ligament, when abdominal contents pass into the weak area at the posterior wall of the femoral canal. They can be hard to distinguish from the inguinal type (especially when ascending cephalad): however, they generally appear more rounded, and, in contrast to inguinal hernias, there is a strong female preponderance in femoral hernias. The incidence of strangulation in femoral hernias is high. Repair techniques are similar for femoral and inguinal hernia.
Umbilical hernia [सम्पादन]
- मू च्वसु: अम्बिलिकल हर्निया
Umbilical hernias are especially common in infants of African descent, and occur more in boys. They involve protrusion of intraabdominal contents through a weakness at the site of passage of the umbilical cord through the abdominal wall. These hernias often resolve spontaneously. Umbilical hernias in adults are largely acquired, and are more frequent in obese or pregnant women. Abnormal decussation of fibers at the linea alba may contribute.
इन्सिजनल हर्निया [सम्पादन]
- मू च्वसु: इन्सिजनल हर्निया.
An incisional hernia occurs when the defect is the result of an incompletely healed surgical wound. When these occur in median laparotomy incisions in the linea alba, they are termed ventral hernias. These can be the most frustrating and difficult to treat, as the repair utilizes already attenuated tissue.
डायफ्र्याग्म्याटिक हर्निया [सम्पादन]
- मू च्वसु: डायफ्र्याग्म्याटिक हर्निया
Higher in the abdomen, an (internal) "diaphragmatic hernia" results when part of the stomach or intestine protrudes into the chest cavity through a defect in the diaphragm.
हायाटस हर्निया is a particular variant of this type, in which the normal passageway through which the esophagus meets the stomach (esophageal hiatus) serves as a functional "defect", allowing part of the stomach to (periodically) "herniate" into the chest. Hiatus hernias may be either "sliding," in which the gastroesophageal junction itself slides through the defect into the chest, or non-sliding (also known as para-esophageal), in which case the junction remains fixed while another portion of the stomach moves up through the defect. Non-sliding or para-esophageal hernias can be dangerous as they may allow the stomach to rotate and obstruct. Repair is usually advised.
A congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a distinct problem, occurring in up to 1 in 2000 births, and requiring pediatric surgery. Intestinal organs may herniate through several parts of the diaphragm, posterolateral (in Bochdalek's triangle, resulting in Bochdalek's hernia), or anteromedial-retrosternal (in the cleft of Larrey/Morgagni's foramen, resulting in Morgagni-Larrey hernia, or Morgagni's hernia).
मेमेगु हर्निया [सम्पादन]
Since many organs or parts of organs can herniate through many orifices, it is very difficult to give an exhaustive list of hernias, with all synonyms and eponyms. The above article deals mostly with "visceral hernias", where the herniating tissue arises within the abdominal cavity. Other hernia types and unusual types of visceral hernias are listed below, in alphabetical order:
- न्हेपु हर्निया: herniation of part of the brain because of excessive intracranial pressure. This may be a life-threatening condition, especially if the brain stem (responsible for some important vital signs) is involved.
- कूपरयु हर्निया: A femoral hernia with two sacs, the first being in the femoral canal, and the second passing through a defect in the superficial fascia and appearing immediately beneath the skin.
- इपिग्यास्ट्रिक हर्निया: hernia through the linea alba above the umbilicus.
- लिटरयु हर्निया: hernia involving a Meckel's diverticulum
- लम्बर हर्निया: hernia in the lumbar region (not to be confused with a lumbar disc hernia), contains following entities:
- पेटिटयु हर्निया - hernia through Petit's triangle (inferior lumbar triangle)
- Grynfeltt's hernia - hernia through Grynfeltt-Lesshaft triangle (superior lumbar triangle)
- अब्ट्युरेटर हर्निया: hernia through obturator canal
- pantaloon hernia: a combined direct and indirect hernia, when the hernial sac protrudes on either side of the inferior epigastric vessels
- पेरिनियल हर्निया: A perineal hernia protrudes through the muscles and fascia of the perineal floor. It may be primary but usually, is acquired following perineal prostatectomy, abdominoperineal resection of the rectum, or pelvic exenteration.
- properitoneal hernia: rare hernia located directly above the peritoneum, for example, when part of an inguinal hernia projects from the deep inguinal ring to the preperitoneal space.
- रिचरयु हर्निया: strangulated hernia involving only one sidewall of the bowel, which can result in bowel perforation through ischaemia without causing bowel obstruction or any of its warning signs.
- स्लाइडिंग हर्निया: occurs when an organ drags along part of the peritoneum, or, in other words, the organ is part of the hernia sac. The colon and the urinary bladder are often involved. The term also frequently refers to sliding hernias of the stomach.
- सायाटिक हर्निया: this hernia in the greater sciatic foramen most commonly presents as an uncomfortable mass in the gluteal area. Bowel obstruction may also occur. This type of hernia is only a rare cause of sciatic neuralgia.
- Spigelian hernia, also known as spontaneous lateral ventral hernia
- Spinal disc herniation, or "herniated nucleus pulposus"
- मू च्वसु: स्पाइनल डिस्क हर्निएसन.
A spinal disc herniation is a condition where the central weak part of the intervertebral disc (nucleus pulposus, which helps absorb shocks to our spine), herniates through the fibrous band (annulus fibrosus) by which it is normally bound. This usually occurs low in the back at the lumbar or lumbo-sacral level and can cause back pain which usually radiates well into the thigh or leg. When the sciatic nerve is involved, the symptom complex is called sciatica. Herniation can occur in the cervical vertebrae too. A nucleoplasty is an operation to repair the herniation.
चिकित्सा मयागु हर्नियायु कम्प्लिकेसन जुइफु:
पप कल्चरय् हर्निया [सम्पादन]
- "Weird Al" Yankovic recorded a song entitled "Living With A Hernia", on his Polka Party! album. The song is a parody of James Brown's "Living In America", and describes the discomfort associated with suffering a hernia, as well as listing common types of hernias.
- In a television advertisement for Boost Mobile, blink-182 drummer Travis Barker appeared in a story of what would have happened if Barker did not have Boost Mobile. He becomes a professional bodybuilder and suffers a "compound hernia" (possibly a counterpart to a compound fracture).
- In a Bill Cosby show (Fat Albert's got a hernia), he describes developing a hernia from picking up a sewer lid, and what happened to him afterwards.
- On an episode of Friends, Joey got a hernia due to weightlifting, but had to wait to have it treated because his insurance lapsed. He eventually paid for the surgery by very realistically playing the part of 'Dying Man' in a movie.
- Surgical recall, 2nd edition, by Lorne. H. Blackbourne, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
- Sabiston textbook of surgery, 17th edition, Townsend et.al.(e.d.), Elsevier-Saunders
- Title Singel, Ryan. "One Million Ways To Die", Wired News, 2006-09-11. Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
- Profile for Joe Gunderson: Reviews. Amazon.com (Retrieved September 25, 2006).
- Friends/Relaties en opmerkelijke gebeurtenissen. The Dutch Wikipedia (Retrieved September 25, 2006).
- M*A*S*H - The TV Series, Season 2, Vol. 3 (1972). Amazon.com (Retrieved September 25, 2006).