नेपोलियोनिक हताः

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नेपोलियोनिक हताः
Austerlitz-baron-Pascal.jpg
Sadler, Battle of Waterloo.jpg
च्वय्: अस्तर्लित्जया ल्वापू
क्वय्: वाटरलूया ल्वापू
तिथि करिब सन् १८०३–सन् १८१५
थाय् युरोप, एट्लान्टिक महासागर, रियो दे ला प्लाता, फ्रेञ्च गायना, हिन्द महासागर, उत्तर अमेरिका
लिच्वः गठबन्धनया विजय, भियनाया कंग्रेस
हताःमि
 United Kingdom

 अस्ट्रिया[a][b]
 Russia[c]
 Prussia[b]
 Spain[d]
Portugalया ध्वाँय्‌ Portugal
 Sicily[e]
 Papal States
 Ottoman Empire (until 1803)
 Sardinia
 स्वीडेन[f]
 Netherlands
Duchy of Brunswickया ध्वाँय्‌ Brunswick
Kingdom of Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ French Royalists
Province of Hanoverया ध्वाँय्‌ Hanover
Nassau

Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ France

Denmarkया ध्वाँय्‌ Denmark–Norway[l]
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1453-1517).svg Ottoman Empire[m]

कमान्दर व नायः
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelandया ध्वाँय्‌ George III

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelandया ध्वाँय्‌ Duke of Wellington
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelandया ध्वाँय्‌ Horatio Nelson 
अस्ट्रियन साम्राज्यया ध्वाँय्‌ Francis I
अस्ट्रियन साम्राज्यया ध्वाँय्‌ Archduke Charles
अस्ट्रियन साम्राज्यया ध्वाँय्‌ Prince von Schwarzenberg
अस्ट्रियन साम्राज्यया ध्वाँय्‌ Archduke John

Russiaया ध्वाँय्‌ Alexander I
Russiaया ध्वाँय्‌ Mikhail Kutuzov
Russiaया ध्वाँय्‌ Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly
Russiaया ध्वाँय्‌ Count Bennigsen
Russiaया ध्वाँय्‌ Pyotr Bagration 
Kingdom of Prussiaया ध्वाँय्‌ Frederick William III
Kingdom of Prussiaया ध्वाँय्‌ Gebhard von Blücher
Kingdom of Prussiaया ध्वाँय्‌ Duke of Brunswick 
Kingdom of Prussiaया ध्वाँय्‌ Prince of Hohenlohe
Spainया ध्वाँय्‌ Ferdinand VII
Spainया ध्वाँय्‌ Miguel de Álava
Portugalया ध्वाँय्‌ Prince John
Portugalया ध्वाँय्‌ Miguel Pereira Forjaz
Netherlandsया ध्वाँय्‌ William, Prince of Orange
Kingdom of the Two Siciliesया ध्वाँय्‌Ferdinand IV
स्वीडेनया ध्वाँय्‌ Gustav IV Adolf
स्वीडेनया ध्वाँय्‌ Prince Charles John[o]
Kingdom of Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ Louis XVIII

Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ Napoleon

Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ Louis Alexandre Berthier
Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ Joachim Murat
Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ Louis Nicolas Davout
Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ Jean Lannes 
Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ André Masséna
Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ Michel Ney
Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ Jean-de-Dieu Soult
Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ Jean-Baptiste Bessières 
Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ and other Marshals
Franceया ध्वाँय्‌ Pierre-Charles Villeneuve (POW)
Spainया ध्वाँय्‌ Joseph I[p]
Netherlandsया ध्वाँय्‌ Louis Bonaparte
Kingdom of Westphaliaया ध्वाँय्‌ Jérôme Bonaparte
22x20px Prince Poniatowski 
Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic)या ध्वाँय्‌ Prince Eugène
[[File:|22x20px|border |alt=|link=]] Maximilian I
[[File:|22x20px|border |alt=|link=]] Frederick Augustus I
[[File:|22x20px|border |alt=|link=]] Frederick I
Denmarkया ध्वाँय्‌ Frederick VI

मदूपिं व घाःपा जुपिं
from 3,350,000 to 6,500,000, see Full list
  1. The term "Austrian Empire" came into use after Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804, whereby Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor took the title Emperor of Austria (Kaiser von Österreich) in response. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806, and consequently "Emperor of Austria" became Francis' primary title. For this reason, "Austrian Empire" is often used instead of "Holy Roman Empire" for brevity's sake when speaking of the Napoleonic Wars, even though the two entities are not synonymous.
  2. Both Austria and Prussia briefly became allies of France and contributed forces to the French invasion of Russia in 1812.
  3. Russia became an ally of France following the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807. The alliance broke down in 1810, which led to the French invasion in 1812. During that time Russia waged war against Sweden (1808–1809) and the Ottoman Empire (1806–1812), and nominally against Britain (1807–1812).
  4. Spain was an ally of France until a stealthy French invasion in 1808, then fought France in the Peninsular War.
  5. Sicily remained in personal union with Naples until Naples became a French client-republic following the Battle of Campo Tenese in 1806.
  6. Nominally, Sweden declared war against the United Kingdom after its defeat by Russia in the Finnish War (1808–1809).
  7. Napoleon established the Duchy of Warsaw, ruled by the Kingdom of Saxony in 1807. Polish Legions had already been serving in the French armies beforehand.
  8. The French Empire annexed the Kingdom of Holland in 1810. Dutch troops fought against Napoleon during the Hundred Days in 1815.
  9. The French Empire annexed the Kingdom of Etruria in 1807.
  10. The Kingdom of Naples, briefly allied with Austria in 1814, allied with France again and fought against Austria during the Neapolitan War in 1815.
  11. Sixteen of France's allies among the German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg) established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806 following the Battle of Austerlitz (December 1805). Following the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (October 1806), various other German states that had previously fought alongside the anti-French allies, including Saxony and Westphalia, also allied with France and joined the Confederation. Saxony changed sides again in 1813 during the Battle of Leipzig, causing most other member-states to quickly follow suit and declare war on France.
  12. Denmark-Norway remained neutral until the Battle of Copenhagen (1807). Denmark was compelled to cede Norway to Sweden by the Treaty of Kiel in 1814. Following a brief Swedish campaign against Norway, Norway entered a personal union with Sweden.
  13. The Ottoman Empire fought against Napoleon in the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria as part of the French Revolutionary Wars. During the Napoleonic era of 1803 to 1815, the Empire participated in two wars against the Allies: against Britain in the Anglo-Turkish War (1807–1809) and against Russia in the Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812).
  14. These four states were the leading nations of the Confederation,but the Confederation was made up of a total of 43 principalities,kingdoms,and duchies.
  15. Was a commander for the French Empire, as Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, 1804–1810.
  16. Joseph Bonaparte ruled as Joseph I of Naples and Sicily from 30 March 1806 to 6 June 1808, and of Spain from 8 June 1808 to 11 December 1813. He also served as a French commander before and after these two reigns.

नेपोलियोनिक हताः नेपोलियनया प्रथम फ्रेञ्च साम्राज्यया विरुद्धय् सन् १८०३ निसें सन् १८१५ तक्कया हतातयेगु श्रृङ्खला ख। सन् १७८९या फ्रेञ्च क्रान्ति व फ्रेञ्च क्रान्तिकारी हताःया लिच्वया कथं न्ह्यथंगु थ्व हतां युरोपेली सेना व सामरिक शक्तिइ छगू हिउपा हल। थ्व हताःया लिच्वःया कथं मास कन्स्क्रिप्सन पद्धतिया विकास जुल। फ्रान्स नेपोलियनया युरोपया कब्जां छकलं शक्तिशालि जुवन तर नापं नेपोलियनया रुसया अधिग्रहण असफल जुइनापं थ्व शक्ति क्षीन जुयावन। अन्ततः, फ्रान्सया पूर्ण पराजय धुंका बोर्बर्न राजतन्त्र पुनर्स्थापना जुवन। थ्व हताःया लिच्वया कथं पवित्र रोमन साम्राज्य पतन जुल व जर्मन साम्राज्य व इतालीइ राष्ट्रियताया भावना बल्हावन। थुकिया लिच्वःया रुपय् जर्मन व इटालियन राष्ट्र पलिस्था जुवन। नापं विश्वव्यापी रुपय् पलिस्था जूगु स्पेनी साम्राज्य स्पेनया फ्रान्सेली अधिग्रहन धुंका कमजोर जुवन व स्पेनया उपनिवेषतयेसं स्वतन्त्रता संग्राम न्ह्यथन। नेपोलियोनिक हताःया सीधा लिच्वःया रुपय् बेलायती साम्राज्य विश्व शक्ति जुवन व मेगु छगू शताब्दीतक्क विश्वशक्तिया रुपय् स्थापित जुल।[१]

लिधंसा[सम्पादन]

  1. Ferguson, Niall (2004). Empire, The rise and demise of the British world order and the lessons for global power. Basic Books.
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