अटोमोबाइल

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कार्ल बेञ्जया "भेलो" मोडेल (१८९४) - थ्व अटोमोबाइल न्हापांगु अटोमोबाइल रेसय् सम्मिलित जुल
सन् २०००या प्यासेञ्जर कार
हलिम मानचित्रय् प्यासेञ्जर कार प्रति १००० म्ह मनु।

अटोमोबाइल वा अटोमोबिल वा मोटर कार छगू घःचा दूगु मोटर गाडी ख। थुकिइ कार इञ्जिन वा मोटर छ्येला यात्रुतेत छगू थासं मेगु थासय् यातायातयायेत छ्येलि। साधारण कथं थुकियात लंय् छ्येलिगु छम्ह निसें च्याम्ह मनुतक्क च्वने ज्युगु प्येचा दुगु व सामान ढुवानी स्वया नं मनुतेगु यातायातया निंतिं देकातःगु गाडीया रुपय् परिभाषित याइ।[१] तर थ्व परिभाषा कथंया यक्व गाडी दैगुलिं थ्व परिभाषा प्रिसाइज मजु।

नांया उत्त्पत्ति[सम्पादन]

अटोमोबाइल खँग्वः दक्ले न्ह्यः फांसे भाषाय् युनानी भाषाया अटो [थमंतुं] व मोबिलिस [सनिगु] खँग्वः स्वाना मेमेगु यान वा प्राणीतेसं सालेम्वागु थमंतुं सनिगु यानयात परिभाषित यायेत छ्येलातःगु खने दु। थुकिया मेगु नां कार धाःसा ल्याटिन भाषाया खँग्वः कारस वा कारम [घःचा दुगु यान], वा मध्य अङ्ग्रेजी खँग्वः कारे ['गाडा'] (फांसे भाषा नं ), व कारोस (अर्थ: गेलिक भाषाय् व्यागन) नं वःगु धैगु विश्वास दु। [२][३]

सन् २००२तक्कय् हलिमय् ५९० मिलियन प्यासेञ्जर कार दुगु (करिब ११ मनुया निंतिं छगू कार) दूगु तथ्याङ्क दु। [४]

इतिहास[सम्पादन]

हलिमया दक्ले न्हापांगु अटोमोबाइल सुनां देकल धैगु खँय् विवाद दु। निकोलस-जोसेफ कग्नटनं करिब सन् १७६९इ सलं सालिगु यानयात मोडिफाइयाना हलिमया दक्ले न्हापांगु थमंतुं सनिगु मेक्यानिकल यान वा अटोमोबाइल देकुगु धैगु यक्व विज्ञतेगु विश्वास दु। तर कग्नत भाजुया स्वचा दुगु यान धाथें संगु वा स्थिर जुगु प्रमाण धाःसा मदु। अथे जुगुलिं मेमेपिन्सं फर्डिन्याण्ड भर्बिएस्ट, जिसुइट चीन मिसनया छम्ह सदस्यं करिब १६७२इ चिनिया जुजुयात लल्हानादीगु हा-शक्तिं सनिगु छगू कतांमरी यान सिरपा हलिमया दक्ले न्हापांगु सनिगु (तर मनु च्वने मछिंगु) अटोमोबाइल यान जुगु विश्वास या। [५][६] अविवादित कथं दुगु तथ्य छु दु धाःसा रिचार्ड ट्रेभिथिक भाजुं थःमेसिनं देका सन् १८०१य् ब्वयादिगु पफिङ्ग डेभिल रोड लोकोमोटिभ हलिमया दक्ले न्हापांगु ब्वयेज्या जुगु स्टिम पावर्ड यान ख। थ्व यान ब्वयेयात छ्येलातःसां थुकिलि ताहाक ईतक्क स्टिम चाप गाक्क तयेमछिंगुलिं थुकिया व्यवहारिक ज्या धाःसा सिक्क हे म्हो जक्क जुवन।

In Russia, in the 1780s, Ivan Kulibin developed a human-pedalled, three-wheeled carriage with modern features such as a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearings; however, it was not developed further.[७]

François Isaac de Rivaz, a Swiss inventor, designed the first internal combustion engine, in 1806, which was fueled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and used it to develop the world's first vehicle, albeit rudimentary, to be powered by such an engine. The design was not very successful, as was the case with others such as Samuel Brown, Samuel Morey, and Etienne Lenoir with his hippomobile, who each produced vehicles (usually adapted carriages or carts) powered by clumsy internal combustion engines.[८]

In November 1881 French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile that was powered by electricity. This was at the International Exhibition of Electricity in Paris.[९]

Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach, and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile.[८]

An automobile powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine was built in Mannheim, Germany by Karl Benz in 1885 and granted a patent in January of the following year under the auspices of his major company, Benz & Cie., which was founded in 1883. It was an integral design, without the adaptation of other existing components and including several new technological elements to create a new concept. This is what made it worthy of a patent. He began to sell his production vehicles in 1888.

Karl Benz
A photograph of the original Benz Patent Motorwagon, first built in 1885 and awarded the patent for the concept

In 1879 Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, which had been designed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle.

His first Motorwagon was built in 1885 and he was awarded the patent for its invention as of his application on January 29, 1886. Benz began promotion of the vehicle on July 3, 1886 and approximately 25 Benz vehicles were sold between 1888 and 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced along with a model intended for affordability. They also were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. Because France was more open to the early automobiles, initially more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany.

In 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal-combustion flat engine, called a boxermotor in German. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899 and because of its size, Benz & Cie., became a joint-stock company.

Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (Daimler Motor Company, DMG) in Cannstatt in 1890 and under the brand name, Daimler, sold their first automobile in 1892, which was a horse-drawn stagecoach built by another manufacturer, that they retrofitted with an engine of their design. By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler and Maybach, either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann, where they set up shop after falling out with their backers. Benz and the Maybach and Daimler team seem to have been unaware of each other's early work. They never worked together because by the time of the merger of the two companies, Daimler and Maybach were no longer part of DMG.

Daimler died in 1900 and later that year, Maybach designed an engine named Daimler-Mercedes, that was placed in a specially-ordered model built to specifications set by Emil Jellinek. This was a production of a small number of vehicles for Jellinek to race and market in his country. Two years later, in 1902, a new model DMG automobile was produced and the model was named Mercedes after the Maybach engine which generated 35 hp. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business of his own. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers.

Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz & Cie. when economic conditions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War, but the directors of DMG refused to consider it initially. Negotiations between the two companies resumed several years later when these conditions worsened and, in 1924 they signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest, valid until the year 2000. Both enterprises standardized design, production, purchasing, and sales and they advertised or marketed their automobile models jointly—although keeping their respective brands.

On June 28, 1926, Benz & Cie. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company, baptizing all of its automobiles Mercedes Benz as a brand honoring the most important model of the DMG automobiles, the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Mercedes-35hp, along with the Benz name. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his death in 1929 and at times, his two sons participated in the management of the company as well.

In 1890, Emile Levassor and Armand Peugeot of France began producing vehicles with Daimler engines and so laid the foundation of the automobile industry in France.

The first design for an American automobile with a gasoline internal combustion engine was drawn in 1877 by George Selden of Rochester, New York, who applied for a patent for an automobile in 1879, but the patent application expired because the vehicle was never built and proved to work (a requirement for a patent). After a delay of sixteen years and a series of attachments to his application, on November 5, 1895, Selden was granted a United States patent (U.S. Patent ५४९,१६०) for a two-stroke automobile engine, which hindered, more than encouraged, development of automobiles in the United States. His patent was challenged by Henry Ford and others, and overturned in 1911.

In Britain there had been several attempts to build steam cars with varying degrees of success with Thomas Rickett even attempting a production run in 1860.[१०] Santler from Malvern is recognized by the Veteran Car Club of Great Britain as having made the first petrol-powered car in the country in 1894[११] followed by Frederick William Lanchester in 1895 but these were both one-offs.[११] The first production vehicles in Great Britain came from the Daimler Motor Company, a company founded by Harry J. Lawson in 1896 after purchasing the right to use the name of the engines. Lawson's company made its first automobiles in 1897 and they bore the name Daimler.[११]

In 1892, German engineer Rudolf Diesel was granted a patent for a "New Rational Combustion Engine". In 1897 he built the first Diesel Engine.[८] Steam-, electric-, and gasoline-powered vehicles competed for decades, with gasoline internal combustion engines achieving dominance in the 1910s.

Although various pistonless rotary engine designs have attempted to compete with the conventional piston and crankshaft design, only Mazda's version of the Wankel engine has had more than very limited success.

इन्धन व प्रपल्सन प्रविधि[सम्पादन]

कम्प्रेस्ड न्याचुरल ग्यासं सनिगु अटो रिक्सा, न्हु दिल्लीइ।

आया ईले आपालं अटोमोबाइल ग्यासोलिन (पेट्रोल) वा डिजेल छ्यला इन्टर्नल कम्बस्चन इञ्जिन संकिगु या। थुकिलिं प्रदुषण व ग्लोबल वार्मिङ्ग जुइगु खने दु। [१२] चिकं आधारित इन्धनया दनाच्वंगु भा, कडा वातावरणीय विधान व ग्रीनहाउस ग्यासया नियन्त्रणया कारणं वैकल्पिक उर्जा स्रोतय् यक्व मालेज्या जुयाच्वंगु दु। वर्तमानय् जुयाच्वंगु मू प्रविधि विकासय् हाइब्रिड वाहन, विद्युतीय वाहन व हाइड्रोजन वाहन मू खनेदु।

पेट्रोलियम इन्धन[सम्पादन]

डिजेल[सम्पादन]

डिजेल-इञ्जिनया कार युरोपय् नांजा। थ्व इन्धनया कार दकले न्ह्यः सन् १९३०या दशकय् मर्सिडिज बेञ्ज व साट्रोएनं पिकागु ख। थ्व इञ्जिनया मू फाइदा धाःगु ५०% इन्धन प्रभावकारी कथं छ्वइगु ख। ग्यासोलिन इञ्जिनय् इन्धन २७%[१३] जक्क ज्या व।

ग्यासोलिन[सम्पादन]

मू पौ: Petrol engine

Gasoline engines have the advantage over diesel in being lighter and able to work at higher rotational speeds and they are the usual choice for fitting in high-performance sports cars. Continuous development of gasoline engines for over a hundred years has produced improvements in efficiency and reduced pollution. The carburetor was used on nearly all road car engines until the 1980s but it was long realised better control of the fuel/air mixture could be achieved with fuel injection. Indirect fuel injection was first used in aircraft engines from 1909, in racing car engines from the 1930s, and road cars from the late 1950s.[१३] Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is now starting to appear in production vehicles such as the 2007 (Mark II) BMW Mini. Exhaust gases are also cleaned up by fitting a catalytic converter into the exhaust system. Clean air legislation in many of the car industries most important markets has made both catalysts and fuel injection virtually universal fittings. Most modern gasoline engines also are capable of running with up to 15% ethanol mixed into the gasoline - older vehicles may have seals and hoses that can be harmed by ethanol. With a small amount of redesign, gasoline-powered vehicles can run on ethanol concentrations as high as 85%. 100% ethanol is used in some parts of the world (such as Brazil), but vehicles must be started on pure gasoline and switched over to ethanol once the engine is running. Most gasoline engined cars can also run on LPG with the addition of an LPG tank for fuel storage and carburetion modifications to add an LPG mixer. LPG produces fewer toxic emissions and is a popular fuel for fork lift trucks that have to operate inside buildings.

The hydrogen powered FCHV (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle) was developed by Toyota in 2005

Biofuels[सम्पादन]

मू पौतः: Biofuel, Ethanol fuel, व biogasoline

Ethanol, other alcohol fuels (biobutanol) and biogasoline have widespread use an automotive fuel. Most alcohols have less energy per liter than gasoline and are usually blended with gasoline. Alcohols are used for a variety of reasons - to increase octane, to improve emissions, and as an alternative to petroleum based fuel, since they can be made from agricultural crops. Brazil's ethanol program provides about 20% of the nation's automotive fuel needs, as a result of the mandatory use of E25 blend of gasoline throughout the country, 3 million cars that operate on pure ethanol, and 6 million dual or flexible-fuel vehicles sold since 2003.[१४] that run on any mix of ethanol and gasoline. The commercial success of "flex" vehicles, as they are popularly known, have allowed sugarcane based ethanol fuel to achieve a 50% market share of the gasoline market by April 2008.[१५][१६][१७]

Electric[सम्पादन]

The Henney Kilowatt, the first modern (transistor-controlled) electric car.
A CNG powered high-floor Neoplan AN440A, run on Compressed Natural Gas

The first electric cars were built around 1832, well before internal combustion powered cars appeared.[१८] For a period of time electrics were considered superior due to the silent nature of electric motors compared to the very loud noise of the gasoline engine. This advantage was removed with Hiram Percy Maxim's invention of the muffler in 1897. Thereafter internal combustion powered cars had two critical advantages: 1) long range and 2) high specific energy (far lower weight of petrol fuel versus weight of batteries). The building of battery electric vehicles that could rival internal combustion models had to wait for the introduction of modern semiconductor controls and improved batteries. Because they can deliver a high torque at low revolutions electric cars do not require such a complex drive train and transmission as internal combustion powered cars. Some post-2000 electric car designs such as the Venturi Fétish are able to accelerate from 0-60 mph (96 km/h) in 4.0 seconds with a top speed around 130 mph (210 km/h). Others have a range of 250 miles (400 km) on the EPA highway cycle requiring 3-1/2 hours to completely charge[१९]. Equivalent fuel efficiency to internal combustion is not well defined but some press reports give it at around Template:Mpg.

Steam[सम्पादन]

मू पौ: steam car

Steam power, usually using an oil- or gas-heated boiler, was also in use until the 1930s but had the major disadvantage of being unable to power the car until boiler pressure was available (although the newer models could achieve this in well under a minute). It has the advantage of being able to produce very low emissions as the combustion process can be carefully controlled. Its disadvantages include poor heat efficiency and extensive requirements for electric auxiliaries.[२०]

Air[सम्पादन]

मू पौ: Compressed-air car

A compressed air car is an alternative fuel car that uses a motor powered by compressed air. The car can be powered solely by air, or by air combined (as in a hybrid electric vehicle) with gasoline/diesel/ethanol or electric plant and regenerative braking. Instead of mixing fuel with air and burning it to drive pistons with hot expanding gases; compressed air cars use the expansion of compressed air to drive their pistons. Several prototypes are available already and scheduled for worldwide sale by the end of 2008. Companies releasing this type of car include Tata Motors and Motor Development International (MDI).

Gas turbine[सम्पादन]

In the 1950s there was a brief interest in using gas turbine engines and several makers including Rover and Chrysler produced prototypes. In spite of the power units being very compact, high fuel consumption, severe delay in throttle response, and lack of engine braking meant no cars reached production.

Rotary (Wankel) engines[सम्पादन]

Rotary Wankel engines were introduced into road cars by NSU with the Ro 80 and later were seen in the Citroën GS Birotor and several Mazda models. In spite of their impressive smoothness, poor reliability and fuel economy led to them largely disappearing. Mazda, beginning with the R100 then RX-2, has continued research on these engines, overcoming most of the earlier problems with the RX-7 and RX-8.

Rocket and jet cars[सम्पादन]

A rocket car holds the record in drag racing. However, the fastest of those cars are used to set the Land Speed Record, and are propelled by propulsive jets emitted from rocket, turbojet, or more recently and most successfully turbofan engines. The ThrustSSC car using two Rolls-Royce Spey turbofans with reheat was able to exceed the speed of sound at ground level in 1997.

Safety[सम्पादन]

मू पौतः: Car safetyAutomobile accident
Result of a serious automobile accident.

There are three main statistics to which automobile safety can be compared:[२१]

Deaths per

billion journeys

Bus: 4.3
Rail: 20
Van: 20
Car: 40
Foot: 40
Water: 90
Air: 117
Bicycle: 170
Motorcycle: 1640
Deaths per

billion hours

Bus: 11.1
Rail: 30
Air: 30.8
Water: 50
Van: 60
Car: 130
Foot: 220
Bicycle: 550
Motorcycle: 4840
Deaths per

billion kilometres

Air: 0.05
Bus: 0.4
Rail: 0.6
Van: 1.2
Water: 2.6
Car: 3.1
Bicycle: 44.6
Foot: 54.2
Motorcycle: 108.9

While road traffic injuries represent the leading cause in worldwide injury-related deaths,[२२] their popularity undermines this statistic.

Mary Ward became one of the first documented automobile fatalities in 1869 in Parsonstown, Ireland[२३] and Henry Bliss one of the United State's first pedestrian automobile casualties in 1899 in New York.[२४] There are now standard tests for safety in new automobiles, like the EuroNCAP and the US NCAP tests,[२५] as well as insurance-backed IIHS tests.[२६]

Economics and impacts[सम्पादन]

Cost and benefits of usage[सम्पादन]

The costs of automobile usage, which may include the cost of: acquiring the vehicle, repairs, maintenance, fuel, depreciation, parking fees, tire replacement, taxes and insurance,[२७] are weighed against the cost of the alternatives, and the value of the benefits - perceived and real - of vehicle usage. The benefits may include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence and convenience.[६]

Cost and benefits to society[सम्पादन]

Similarly the costs to society of encompassing automobile use, which may include those of: maintaining roads, land use, pollution, public health, health care, and of disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life, can be balanced against the value of the benefits to society that automobile use generates. The societal benefits may include: economy benefits, such as job and wealth creation, of automobile production and maintenance, transportation provision, society wellbeing derived from leisure and travel opportunities, and revenue generation from the tax opportunities. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far reaching implications for the nature of societies. [२८]

Impacts on society and environment[सम्पादन]

Transportation is a major contributor to air pollution in most industrialised nations. According to the American Surface Transportation Policy Project nearly half of all Americans are breathing unhealthy air. Their study showed air quality in dozens of metropolitan areas has got worse over the last decade.[२९] In the United States the average passenger car emits 11,450 lbs (5 tonnes) of carbon dioxide, along with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen.[३०] Residents of low-density, residential-only sprawling communities are also more likely to die in car collisions, which kill 1.2 million people worldwide each year, and injure about forty times this number.[२२] Sprawl is more broadly a factor in inactivity and obesity, which in turn can lead to increased risk of a variety of diseases.[३१]

Improving the positive and reducing the negative impacts[सम्पादन]

Fuel taxes may act as an incentive for the production of more efficient, hence less polluting, car designs (e.g. hybrid vehicles) and the development of alternative fuels. High fuel taxes may provide a strong incentive for consumers to purchase lighter, smaller, more fuel-efficient cars, or to not drive. On average, today's automobiles are about 75 percent recyclable, and using recycled steel helps reduce energy use and pollution.[३२] In the United States Congress, federally mandated fuel efficiency standards have been debated regularly, passenger car standards have not risen above the Template:Mpg standard set in 1985. Light truck standards have changed more frequently, and were set at Template:Mpg in 2007.[३३] Alternative fuel vehicles are another option that is less polluting than conventional petroleum powered vehicles.

Future car technologies[सम्पादन]

Automobile propulsion technology under development include gasoline/electric and plug-in hybrids, battery electric vehicles, hydrogen cars, biofuels, and various alternative fuels.

Research into future alternative forms of power include the development of fuel cells, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), stirling engines[३४], and even using the stored energy of compressed air or liquid nitrogen.

New materials which may replace steel car bodies include duraluminum, fiberglass, carbon fiber, and carbon nanotubes.

Telematics technology is allowing more and more people to share cars, on a pay-as-you-go basis, through such schemes as City Car Club in the UK, Mobility in mainland Europe, and Zipcar in the US.

Alternatives to the automobile[सम्पादन]

Established alternatives for some aspects of automobile use include public transit (buses, trolleybuses, trains, subways, monorails, tramways), cycling, walking, rollerblading, skateboarding, horseback riding and using a velomobile. Car-share arrangements and carpooling are also increasingly popular–the U.S. market leader in car-sharing has experienced double-digit growth in revenue and membership growth between 2006 and 2007, offering a service that enables urban residents to "share" a vehicle rather than own a car in already congested neighborhoods.[३५] Bike-share systems have been tried in some European cities, including Copenhagen and Amsterdam. Similar programs have been experimented with in a number of U.S. Cities.[३६] Additional individual modes of transport, such as personal rapid transit could serve as an alternative to automobiles if they prove to be socially accepted.[३७]

See also[सम्पादन]

References[सम्पादन]

  1. (1976) Pocket Oxford Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861113-7.
  2. "Car". (etymology). Online Etymology Dictionary. 2008-06-02 कथं।
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  4. WorldMapper - passenger cars.
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  14. Veículos flex somam 6 milhões e alcançam 23% da frota (Portuguese). Folha Online (2008-08-04). 2008-08-04 कथं।
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External links[सम्पादन]

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