हान साम्राज्य

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漢朝
The Han Dynasty

Empire

207 BC – 220
Location of Han
The Han Dynasty in 87 BCE (Not shown is the protectorate in the Tarim Basin, and areas of fluctuating control north of the border shown.
राजधानी Chang'an
(206 BC9 AD)

Luoyang
(25 AD–220 AD)
भाषा(तः) Archaic Chinese
धर्म Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 202 BC–195 BC Emperor Gaozu of Han
Chancellor
 - 206 BC–193 BC Xiao He
 - – Cao Can
 - 189AD–192AD Dong Zhuo
 - 208 AD–220 AD Cao Cao
 - 220 AD Cao Pi
History
 - Establishment 207 BC
 - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BCE
 - Interruption of Han rule 9–24
 - Abdication to Cao Wei 220

हान साम्राज्य (simplified Chinese: 汉朝; traditional Chinese: 漢朝; pinyin: Hàn Cháo; Wade–Giles: Han Ch'ao; 206 BC–220 AD) क्विन साम्राज्य धुंका व स्वंगु अधिराज्य स्वया न्ह्यःया चिनिया साम्राज्य ख। हान साम्राज्य लिउ खलः नांया छगू शक्तिशाली परिवारं सञ्चालन याःगु ख। हानतेगु ४०० दँ स्वया अप्वया शासन चीनया इतिहासय् छगू सर्वोत्कृष्ट ईया कथं कायेगु या। थुकिया लिच्वः कथं थौंतक्क नं आपालं चिनियातेसँ थःयात हान चिनिया धइगु या।

During the Han Dynasty, China officially became a Confucian state and prospered domestically: agriculture, handicrafts and commerce flourished, and the population reached over 55 million people. Meanwhile, the empire extended its political, cultural influence, and territory over much of Korea, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Central Asia before it finally collapsed under a combination of domestic and external pressures. It also had a series of military outposts in some of these regions, including Central Asia, Mongolia, and Persia(the Persian king allowed it to be set up).

The first of the two periods of the dynasty was the Former Han Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 前汉; traditional Chinese: 前漢; pinyin: Qiánhàn) or Western Han Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 西汉; traditional Chinese: 西漢; pinyin: Xī Hàn) 206 BC–24AD, seated at Chang'an. The Later Han Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 后汉; traditional Chinese: 後漢; pinyin: Hòu Hàn) or Eastern Han Dynasty (simplified Chinese: 东汉; traditional Chinese: 東漢; pinyin: Dōng Hàn) 25–220 AD was seated at Luoyang. The western-eastern Han convention is currently used to avoid confusion with the Later Han Dynasty of the Period of the Five Dynasties and the Ten Kingdoms although the former-later nomenclature was used in history texts including Sima Guang's Zizhi Tongjian.

The Han Dynasty was notable also for its military prowess. The empire expanded westward to the Tarim Basin (in modern Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region), with military expeditions as far west as beyond the Caspian Sea, making possible a relatively safe and secure caravan and mercantile traffic across Central Asia. The paths of caravan traffic came to be known as the "Silk Road" because the route was used to export Chinese silk. Chinese armies also invaded and annexed parts of northern Korea (Wiman Joseon) (as well as establishing colonies and trading posts that eventually integrated with the locals) and northern Vietnam toward the end of the 2nd century BC. The borders near the peripheral territories were often tense with possible conflict with other states. To ensure peace with non-Chinese powers, the Han court developed a mutually beneficial "tributary system". Non-Chinese states were allowed to remain autonomous in exchange for symbolic acceptance of Han overlordship. Tributary ties were confirmed and strengthened through intermarriages at the ruling level and periodic exchanges of gifts and goods.

Emergence[सम्पादन]

History of China
History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2100–1600 BC
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BC
Zhou Dynasty 1045–256 BC
 Western Zhou
 Eastern Zhou
   Spring and Autumn Period
   Warring States Period
IMPERIAL
Qin Dynasty 221 BC–206 BC
Han Dynasty 206 BC–220 AD
  Western Han
  Xin Dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu & Wu
Jin Dynasty 265–420
  Western Jin 16 Kingdoms
304–439
  Eastern Jin
Southern & Northern Dynasties
420–589
Sui Dynasty 581–618
Tang Dynasty 618–907
  ( Second Zhou 690–705 )
5 Dynasties &
10 Kingdoms

907–960
Liao Dynasty
907–1125
Song Dynasty
960–1279
  Northern Song W. Xia
  Southern Song Jin
Yuan Dynasty 1271–1368
Ming Dynasty 1368–1644
Qing Dynasty 1644–1911
MODERN
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic
of China

1949–present
Republic of
China
(Taiwan)
1945–present
Western Han painting on silk was found draped over the coffin in the grave of Lady Dai (c. 168 BC) at Mawangdui near Changsha in Hunan province.

Within the first three months after Qin Dynasty Emperor Qin Shi Huang's death at Shaqiu, widespread revolts by peasants, prisoners, soldiers and descendants of the nobles of the six Warring States sprang up all over China. Chen Sheng and Wu Guang, two in a group of about 900 soldiers assigned to defend against the Xiongnu, were the leaders of the first rebellion. Continuous insurgence finally toppled the Qin dynasty in 206 BC. The leader of the insurgents was Xiang Yu, an outstanding military commander without political expertise, who divided the country into 19 feudal states to his own satisfaction.

The ensuing war among those states signified the five years of Chu Han Contention with Liu Bang, the first emperor of the Han Dynasty, as the eventual winner with the help of Zhang Liang and Han Xin. Initially, "Han" (the principality as created by Xiang Yu's division) consisted merely of modern Sichuan, Chongqing, and southern Shaanxi and was a minor humble principality, but eventually grew into an empire; the Han Dynasty was named after the principality, which was itself named after Hanzhong (simplified Chinese: 汉中; traditional Chinese: 漢中; pinyin: hànzhōng)—modern southern Shaanxi, the region centering the modern city of Hanzhong. The beginning of the Han Dynasty can be dated either from 206 BC when the Qin dynasty crumbled and the Principality of Han was established or 202 BC when Xiang Yu committed suicide.

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