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r2.7.2) (रोबोट ले थप्दै: en:Mac OS X Lion; अंगराग परिवर्तन
(न्हुगु पौ: {{Infobox OS version |name = Mac OS X v10.7 "Lion" |family = Mac OS X |logo = OSXLeopard.svg |logo_size = 60px |screenshot = Mac OSX Lion screen.png |caption = Scree...)
m (r2.7.2) (रोबोट ले थप्दै: en:Mac OS X Lion; अंगराग परिवर्तन)
On February 24, 2011, the first developer's preview of Lion (11A390) was released to subscribers of [[Apple Developer|Apple's developers]] program.<ref>{{cite web|author=Ex |url=http://www.iphoneincanada.ca/apple-software/apple-seeds-first-mac-os-x-10-7-lion-build-11a390/ |title=Apple Seeds First Mac OS X 10.7 Lion Build 11A390 &#124; iPhone in Canada Blog – Canada's No. 1 iPhone Resource |publisher=iPhoneinCanada.ca |date=February 25, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref> Other developer previews were subsequently released, with Lion Preview 4 (11A480b) being released at WWDC 2011.<ref>{{cite web|title=Apple devs get iTunes 10.5 beta, Apple TV 2 beta, Xcode 4.2 Preview and Lion Preview 4|url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/06/06/apple_says_devices_updated_to_ios_5_beta_cant_be_restored_to_earlier_versions.html|publisher=AppleInsider|accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref> Lion achieved [[Golden master|Golden Master]] status on July 1, 2011,<ref>{{cite web|title=OS X Lion Golden Master seeded to developers ahead of July launch|url=http://9to5mac.com/2011/07/01/os-x-lion-golden-master-seeded-to-developers/ |accessdate=July 1,2011}}</ref> followed by its final release via the Mac App Store on July 20, 2011.
== Release and distribution ==
On June 6, 2011, at the [[Apple Worldwide Developers Conference]], it was announced that the official release for Lion would be in July 2011. The specific release date of July 20 was not confirmed until the day before, July 19th, by Apple CFO, [[Peter Oppenheimer]], as part of Apple's 2011 third-quarter earnings announcement.<ref name="apple-q3-2011">[http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Desktops-and-Notebooks/Apples-OS-X-Lion-Launching-iPad-iPhone-Quarterly-Sales-Soar-163074/ Apple's OS X Lion Launching, iPad, iPhone Quarterly Sales Soar]</ref>
The Server portion of Lion is available as a separate download from the Mac App Store for US$49.99, which is in addition to the purchase price of Lion itself.<ref name="lionserver">{{cite web|title=Lion Server - The server for everyone.|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/server/|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref><!--Yes, $49.99, not $29.99; that's what the reference says. -->
== Hardware support ==
The first developer preview of Lion added [[TRIM]] support for [[Solid-state drive|SSDs]] shipped with Macs, which is also included in the latest version of Snow Leopard (10.6.8) shipping with current MacBook Pros before July 20, 2011. As of yet, there is no [[TRIM]] support for other [[Solid-state drive|SSDs]].<ref name="trim">{{cite web|url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/02/25/apple_adds_ssd_trim_support_to_mac_os_x_10_7_lion_beta.html |title=Inside Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: Apple adds SSD TRIM support |publisher=AppleInsider |date=February 25, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref>
=== System requirements ===
* [[x86-64]] [[CPU]] (Macs with an [[Intel Core 2 Duo]], [[Intel Core i3]], [[Intel Core i5]], [[Intel Core i7]], or [[Xeon]] processor.)<ref name="howtobuy"/><ref name=autogenerated1>{{cite web|url=http://www.macrumors.com/2011/02/25/mac-os-x-lion-roundup-recovery-partitions-trim-support-core-2-duo-minimum-focus-on-security/ |title=Mac OS X Lion Roundup: Recovery Partitions, TRIM Support, Core 2 Duo Minimum, Focus on Security |publisher=Mac Rumors |date=February 25, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref>
* At least 2GB of RAM<ref name="sysreqs"/>
* AirDrop is supported on the following Mac models:<ref name="sysreqs">{{cite web|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/specs.html |title=Apple - OS X Lion - Technical specifications |publisher=Apple.ca |date= |accessdate=2011-07-20}}</ref> MacBook Pro (late 2008 or newer), MacBook Air (late 2010 or newer), MacBook (late 2008 or newer), iMac (early 2009 or newer), Mac mini (mid 2010 or newer), Mac Pro (early 2009 with AirPort Extreme card and mid 2010 or newer).
== New or changed features ==
Some new features were announced at the "Back to the Mac" keynote in October 2010, and the Apple website was updated in February 2011 with more details. Other features were announced at the WWDC 2011 keynote or on Apple's Mac OS X Lion Web site after the keynote. Apple claims that there are over 250 new or changed features in Lion, including:
The complete list from Apple can be found on Apple's website.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html |title=OS X Lion - Over 250 new features. Read about all of them |publisher=Apple |date= |accessdate=2011-06-21}}</ref>
=== Server features ===
{{Main|Mac OS X Server}}
* '''Wiki Server 3''' – Making it easier to collaborate, share, and exchange information. Users can quickly switch between a server's home page, My Page, Updates, Wikis, People, and Podcasts. File sharing is simpler, and a new Page Editor is added for easy customization.<ref name="lionserver"/>
* '''Profile Manager''' – Profile Manager delivers simple, profile-based setup and management for Mac OS X Lion, iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch devices. It also integrates with existing directory services and delivers automatic over-the-air profile updates using the Apple Push Notification service.<ref name="lionserver"/><ref>{{cite web|last=Finley |first=Klint |url=http://www.readwriteweb.com/enterprise/2011/02/is-osx-lion-server-more-eviden.php |title=Is OSX Lion Server More Evidence That Apple is Gunning for the Enterprise? |publisher=Readwriteweb.com |date=February 24, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref>
=== User interface changes ===
* Redesigned [[Aqua (user interface)|Aqua user interface]] elements, including buttons and progress bars. The red, yellow, and green buttons in the [[window decoration]]s have also been made smaller.{{Citation needed|date=February 2011}}
* Flexible window resizing from any corner or edge of the window,<ref name="otherfeatures">{{cite web|title=Other Features|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#other|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/02/25/inside_mac_os_x_lion_new_window_controlsgestures.html |title=Inside Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: New window controls & gestures |publisher=AppleInsider |date=February 25, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref> similar to window resizing in [[Microsoft Windows]] and many [[X window manager|window managers for X11]].
* Tabs, when selected, now appear as being pushed in and darkened as opposed to previous versions where selected tabs were highlighted in aqua blue.<ref>{{cite web|title=Inside Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: Developer Preview 3 dials down animated tabs|url=http://forums.appleinsider.com/showthread.php?threadid=123512#other|publisher=AppleInsider |date=April 29, 2011 |accessdate=July 12, 2011}}</ref>
=== Dropped features ===
* '''[[Front Row (software)|Front Row]]'''<ref name="AppleInsider: Mac OS X Lion drops Front Row, Java runtime, Rosetta">{{cite web |url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/02/26/mac_os_x_lion_drops_front_row_java_runtime_rosetta.html |title=Mac OS X Lion drops Front Row, Java runtime, Rosetta |author=AppleInsider Staff |date=February 26, 2011 |work=[[AppleInsider]] |publisher=AppleInsider, Inc |accessdate=February 27, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Rosetta (software)|Rosetta]]''', software which makes possible the execution of [[PowerPC]] software on [[x86]] hardware, is no longer available.<ref name="AppleInsider: Mac OS X Lion drops Front Row, Java runtime, Rosetta" />
* '''[[iSync]]''', software used for syncing contacts and calendars to third-party mobile phones, is no longer included; however, iSync v3.1.2 from Snow Leopard continues to work.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}}
== Reception ==
Reception for OS X Lion has been positive. In an extensive review of the operating system, ''[[Ars Technica]]'' recommended Lion.<ref name=ars/> They noted that it feels like it is the start of a new line of operating systems that will continue to be influenced by Apple's [[iOS (Apple)|iOS]] platform.<ref name=ars/> The review also compared the introduction of Lion, along with its new conventions that change traditional ways of computing, to the original [[Mac OS X]] and when it replaced the classic [[Mac OS]].<ref name=ars>{{cite news|url=http://arstechnica.com/apple/reviews/2011/07/mac-os-x-10-7.ars/|title=Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: the Ars Technica review|last=Siracusa|first=John|date=July 20, 2011|work=[[Ars Technica]]|publisher=[[Condé Nast Digital]]}}</ref> ''[[Macworld]]'' called Lion a "radical revision", praising the changes made to the operating system to be more user friendly to new Mac users that are familiar with the iOS interface, while criticizing the limited utility of the interface. Ultimately, the magazine considered Lion an operating system worth getting, giving it 4.5 out of 5 stars.<ref name=macworld>{{cite news|accessdate=2011-07-21 |url=http://www.macworld.com/article/161026/2011/07/osx_lion_review.html |title=Apple OS X Lion |newspaper=Macworld |date=July 20, 2011 |last=Snell |first=Jason}}</ref> [[guardian.co.uk]] called Lion a substantial improvement from its predecessors, and considered it a "steal" given its price.<ref name=guardian>{{cite web |accessdate=2011-07-21 |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2011/jul/20/mac-osx-lion-review |title=Mac OS X Lion: in-depth review with pictures |publisher=guardian.co.uk |date=2011-07-20 |last=Gemmell |first=Matt }}</ref> On the other hand, ''[[Gizmodo]]'' stated that the new interface "feels like a failure" and concluded by saying that "it doesn't feel like a must-have upgrade".<ref name=gizmodo>{{cite news|accessdate=2011-07-24 |url=http://gizmodo.com/5819418/mac-os-x-lion-this-is-not-the-future-we-were-hoping-for |title=Mac OS X Lion: This Is Not the Future We Were Hoping For |publisher=[[Gizmodo]] |date=July 11, 2011 |last=Diaz |first=Jesus}}</ref>
Due to Lion's enhanced security features, including application sandboxing, Dino Dai Zovi, principal of security consultancy Trail of Bits and the coauthor of ''The Mac Hacker's Handbook'', characterized Lion's security as "a significant improvement, and the best way that I've described the level of security in Lion is that it's Windows 7, plus, plus. I generally tell Mac users that if they care about security, they should upgrade to Lion sooner rather than later, and the same goes for Windows users, too."<ref name="elreg">{{cite news|url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/07/21/mac_os_x_lion_security/ |title= Major overhaul makes OS X Lion king of security|newspaper=[[The Register]] |first=Dan |last=Goodin |date=21 July 2011 |accessdate=2011-07-23}}</ref>
== References ==
== External links ==
* {{Official website|http://www.apple.com/macosx/lion/}}
{{Mac OS History}}
[[Categoryपुचः:2011 software]]
[[Categoryपुचः:Mac OS X]]
[[Categoryपुचः:X86-64 operating systems]]
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