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Copper
29Cu
-

Cu

Ag
nickelcopperzinc
रुप
red-orange metallic luster

Native copper (~4 cm in size)
साधारण गुण
नां, चिं, ल्या copper, Cu, 29
उच्चारण /ˈkɒpər/ KOP-ər
धातुया वर्ग transition metal
ग्रुप, पिरियद, ब्लक 114, d
Standard atomic weight 63.546(3)
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s1
2, 8, 18, 1
Electron shells of copper (2, 8, 18, 1)
History
Discovery Middle East (9000 BC)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 8.96 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 8.02 g·cm−3
Melting point 1357.77 K, 1084.62 °C, 1984.32 °F
Boiling point 2835 K, 2562 °C, 4643 °F
Heat of fusion 13.26 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 300.4 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 24.440 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1509 1661 1850 2089 2404 2834
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +1, +2, +3, +4
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.90 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 745.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1957.9 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3555 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 128 pm
Covalent radius 132±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 140 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Copper has a face-centered cubic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[१]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 16.78 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 401 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 16.5 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (annealed)
3810 m·s−1
Young's modulus 110–128 GPa
Shear modulus 48 GPa
Bulk modulus 140 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.34
Mohs hardness 3.0
Vickers hardness 369 MPa
Brinell hardness 35 HB = 874 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-50-8
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of copper
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
63Cu 69.15% Cu एलेमेन्ट 34 न्युट्रोन नाप स्टेबल जु
64Cu syn 12.700 h ε - 64Ni
β - 64Zn
65Cu 30.85% Cu एलेमेन्ट 36 न्युट्रोन नाप स्टेबल जु
67Cu syn 61.83 h β - 67Zn
· r

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