सल्जक साम्राज्य

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Büyük Selçuklu Devleti
دولت سلجوقیان
Dawlat-i Saljūqiān
Great Seljuq Empire
1037 – 1194
Location of सल्जक साम्राज्य
Great Seljuq Empire in its zenith in 1092,
upon the death of Malik Shah I
राजधानी Nishapur
(1037–1043)
Rey
(1043–1051)
Isfahan
(1051–1118)
Hamadan, Western capital (1118–1194)
Merv, Eastern capital (1118–1153)
भाषा(तः)
Government Monarchy[[Category:Former monarchies}}|सल्जक साम्राज्य, 1037]]
Sultan
 - 1037–1063 Toghrul I (first)
 - 1174–1194 Toghrul III (last)[५][६]
History
 - Tughril formed the state system 1037
 - Replaced by the Khwarezmian Empire[७] 1194
क्षेत्रफल
 - 1080 est. ३,९००,००० km2
१,५०५,७९८ sq mi
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG Ghaznavid Empire
Khwarezmian Empire Khwarezmian Empire 1190 - 1220 (AD).PNG
Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm Flag of None.svg
Ayyubid dynasty Flag of None.svg
Atabegs of Azerbaijan Flag of None.svg
Burid dynasty Flag of None.svg
Zengid dynasty Flag of None.svg
Danishmends Flag of None.svg
Artuqid dynasty Flag of None.svg
Saltukids Flag of None.svg
थौंयागु इले

सल्जक साम्राज्य छगू तुर्क-पारसी साम्राज्य ख।

लिधंसा[सम्पादन]

  1. १.० १.१ Savory, R. M. and Roger Savory, Introduction to Islamic civilisation, (Cambridge University Press, 1976 ), 82.
  2. Black, Edwin, Banking on Baghdad: inside Iraq's 7,000-year history of war, profit and conflict, (John Wiley and sons, 2004), 38.
  3. ३.० ३.१ ३.२ C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time)
  4. Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Ed. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, (Elsevier Ltd., 2009), 1110;Oghuz Turkic is first represented by Old Anatolian Turkish which was a subordinate written medium until the end of the Seljuk rule.".
  5. A New General Biographical Dictionary, Vol.2, Ed. Hugh James Rose, (London, 1853), 214.
  6. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988), 167.
  7. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988),159,161; "In 1194, Togrul III would succumb to the onslaught of the Khwarizmian Turks, who were destined at last to succeed the Seljuks to the empire of the Middle East."