ग्रीक भाषा

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युनानी
Ελληνικά
मू भाषी जनसंख्या युनान, साइप्रस, अल्बानिया, अस्ट्रेलिया, म्यासेडोनिया गणतन्त्र, टर्की, बुल्गेरिया, रोमानिया, इटाली, स्पेन, आर्मेनिया, लेबानन, ज्योर्जिया, मिश्र, जोर्डन, संयुक्त अधिराज्य, संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका, युक्रेन, रुस, दक्षिण अफ्रिका, कजाख्स्तान, फ्रान्स, क्यानाडा आदि
Native speakers
१.५-२.२ कोटी  (date missing)
युनानी लिपि
आधिकारिक अवस्था
आधिकारिक मान्यता
Flag of Greece.svg Greece
Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus
Flag of Europe.svg Europe
recognised as minority language in parts of:
Flag of Italy.svg Italy[१]
Flag of Albania.svg Albania[पुष्टि(साइटेसन) मागु]
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey[२]
भाषा कोड
ISO 639-1 el
ISO 639-2 gre (B)
ell (T)
ISO 639-3 Either:
grc – Ancient Greek
ell – Modern Greek

युनानी भाषा (ελληνική γλώσσα छगू इण्डो-युरोपियन भाषा ख। थ्व भाषा करीब १.५-२.२ कोटी मनुतेसं ल्हाइ। आपालं थ्व भाषा युनानसाइप्रसय् छ्येलि तर अल्पमतीय कतहं हलिमया यक्व थासय् युनानी आप्रवासीतेसं छ्येलिगु या।

युनानी भाषा युनानय् युनानी लिपिइ ९गु शताब्दी निसें च्वैगु या, थ्व स्वया न्ह्यः थ्व भाषा लिनियर बी(१५-१३ इ पू)इ च्वैगु या। साइप्रसय् धाःसा थ्व भाषा ४गु शताब्दी ई पू निसें थ्व लिपि छ्येलाहःगु खनेद् दु, थ्व स्वया न्ह्यः साइप्रसय् साइप्रियट सिलेबरीइ थ्व भाषा च्वैगु या। युनानी साहित्यय् करिब ३०००दं निसें साहित्यिक ज्या जुयाच्वंगु खने दु।

वर्गीकरण[सम्पादन]

लिपि[सम्पादन]

Greek alphabet alpha-omega.svg
Greek alphabet
Αα Alpha Νν Nu
Ββ Beta Ξξ Xi
Γγ Gamma Οο Omicron
Δδ Delta Ππ Pi
Εε Epsilon Ρρ Rho
Ζζ Zeta Σσς Sigma
Ηη Eta Ττ Tau
Θθ Theta Υυ Upsilon
Ιι Iota Φφ Phi
Κκ Kappa Χχ Chi
Λλ Lambda Ψψ Psi
Μμ Mu Ωω Omega
Other characters
Digamma uc lc.svg Digamma Greek Stigma.svg Stigma
Greek Heta.svg Heta Greek San.svg San
Qoppa Q-and-Z-shaped.svg Qoppa Greek Sampi 2 shapes.svg Sampi
Greek diacritics
मू पौतः: Greek alphabetGreek orthography

Greek has been written in the Greek alphabet since approximately the 9th century BC. In classical Greek, as in classical Latin, only upper-case letters existed. The lower-case Greek letters were developed much later by medieval scribes to permit a faster, more convenient cursive writing style with the use of ink and quill. The variant of the alphabet in use today is essentially the late Ionic variant, introduced for writing classical Attic in 403 BC.

The modern Greek alphabet consists of 24 letters, each with a capital (majuscule) and lowercase (minuscule) form. The letter sigma has an additional lowercase form (ς) used in final position.

Majuscule form
Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω
Minuscule form
α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω

In addition to the letters, the Greek alphabet also features a number of diacritical signs: three different accent marks (acute, grave and circumflex), originally denoting different shapes of pitch accent on the stressed vowel; the so-called breathing marks (spiritus asper and spiritus lenis), originally used to signal presence or absence of word-initial /h/; and the diaeresis, used to mark full syllabic value of a vowel that would otherwise be read as part of a diphthong. These marks were introduced during the course of the Hellenistic period. Actual usage of the grave in handwriting had seen a rapid decline in favor of uniform usage of the acute during the late 20th century, and it had only been retained in typography.

In the writing reform of 1982, the use of most of them was abolished from official use in Greece. Since then, Modern Greek has been written mostly in the simplified monotonic orthography (or monotonic system), which employs only the acute accent and the diaeresis. The traditional system, now called the polytonic orthography (or polytonic system), is still used internationally for the writing of Ancient Greek.

भैगोलिक विभाजन[सम्पादन]

Modern Greek is spoken by about 14 million people, mainly in Greece and Cyprus. There are also traditional Greek-speaking settlements in the neighboring countries Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey, as well as in several countries in the Black Sea area (The Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) and around the Mediterranean Sea (Southern Italy, Israel, Egypt and ancient coastal towns along the Levant). The language is also spoken by emigrant communities in many countries in Western Europe, North America, Australia, as well as in Argentina, Brazil and others.

आधिकारिक अवस्था[सम्पादन]

Greek is the official language of Greece where it is spoken by about 99.5% of the population. It is also (nominally alongside Turkish), the official language of Cyprus.[३] Because of the membership of Greece and Cyprus in the European Union, Greek is one of the 23 official languages of the European Union. Greek is officially recognized as a minority language in parts of Turkey, Italy and Albania.

स्वयादिसँ[सम्पादन]

लिधंसा[सम्पादन]

  1. Recognised in Italy as Griko
  2. Treaty of Lausanne, Art. 41.
  3. The Constitution of Cyprus, App. D., Part 1, Art. 3 states that The official languages of the Republic are Greek and Turkish. [१]. However, the official status of Turkish is only nominal in the Greek-dominated Republic of Cyprus; in practice, outside Turkish-dominated Northern Cyprus, Turkish is little used; see A. Arvaniti (2006): Erasure as a a means of maintaining diglossia in Cyprus, San Diego Linguistics Papers 2: 25-38. Page 27.
  • Herbert Weir Smyth, Greek Grammar, Harvard University Press, 1956 (revised edition), ISBN 0-674-36250-0. The standard grammar of classical Greek. Focuses primarily on the Attic dialect, with comparatively weak treatment of the other dialects and the Homeric Kunstsprache.
  • W. Sidney Allen, Vox Graeca - a guide to the pronunciation of classical Greek. Cambridge University Press, 1968-74. ISBN 0-521-20626-X
  • Geoffrey Horrocks, Greek: A History of the Language and Its Speakers (Longman Linguistics Library). Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 0-582-30709-0. From Mycenean to modern.
  • Andrew Sihler, "A New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin", Oxford University Press, 1996. An historical grammar of ancient Greek from its Indo-European origins. Some eccentricities and no bibliography but a useful handbook to the earliest stages of Greek's development.
  • Robert Browning, Medieval and Modern Greek, Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition 1983, ISBN 0-521-29978-0. An excellent and concise historical account of the development of modern Greek from the ancient language.
  • Brian Newton, The Generative Interpretation of Dialect: A Study of Modern Greek Phonology, Cambridge University Press, 1972, ISBN 0-521-08497-0.
  • Crosby and Schaeffer, An Introduction to Greek, Allyn and Bacon, Inc. 1928. A school grammar of ancient Greek
  • David Holton et al., Greek: A Comprehensive Grammar of the Modern Language, Routledge, 1997, ISBN 0-415-10002-X. A reference grammar of modern Greek.
  • Dionysius of Thrace, "Art of Grammar", "Τέχνη γραμματική", c.100 BC

पिनेया स्वापू[सम्पादन]

General background[सम्पादन]

विकिपिडिया
ग्रीक भाषा संस्करण, विकिपिडिया, सितिकं छ्येलिगु हलिमसफूयागु


Language learning[सम्पादन]

Dictionaries[सम्पादन]

विकिस्नरी
ग्रीक भाषा संस्करण विकिस्नरी, सितिकं छ्येलिगु खंग्वसफूयागु

Literature[सम्पादन]


हलिमया मू भाषात पृथ्वी
मन्दारिन भाषा | क्यान्टोनिज भाषा | इस्पान्योल भाषा |वुव भाषा | मिन भाषा | होक्का भाषा | अंग्रेजी भाषा | हिन्दी भाषा | रूसी भाषा | अरबी भाषा | बंगाली भाषा | पोर्तुगेस भाषा | जापानी भाषा | फांसे भाषा | जर्मन भाषा | उर्दू भाषा | पञ्जाबी भाषा | कोरियन भाषा | तेलुगु भाषा | इटालियानो | तमिल भाषा | मराठी भाषा | जावानिज भाषा | भियतनामी भाषा | तर्किश भाषा | थाइ भाषा | युक्रेनियन भाषा | स्वाहिली भाषा | पोलिश भाषा | कन्नड भाषा | गुजराती भाषा | मलयालम भाषा | टागालोग भाषा | फारसी भाषा | हौसा भाषा | बर्मेली भाषा | उडिया भाषा | सुडानिज भाषा | रोमानियन भाषा | पश्तो भाषा | डच-फ्लेमिश भाषा | सर्बियन क्रोएशियन भाषा | आसामी भाषा | योऊबा भाषा | सिन्धी भाषा | इबो भाषा | आम्हारिक भाषा | हङ्गेरियन भाषा | अजेरी भाषा | खेँ भाषा | चेक भाषा | सिंहाली भाषा | सेबुआनो भाषा | फुला भाषा | उजबेक भाषा | मलागासी भाषा | युनानी भाषा | अफ्रिकांस भाषा | कुर्दिश भाषा | गाला भाषा | मदुरीसी भाषा | बाइलोरशियन भाषा | क्यातालान भाषा | नियाङ्गा भाषा | ओरोम भाषा | स्वीडिश भाषा | बुल्गेरियन भाषा | मलिन्के भाषा | कजाख भाषा | रूवान्डा भाषा | क्वेशा भाषा | शोना भाषा | ततार भाषा | ख्मेर भाषा | जुलू भाषा | उईघर भाषा | सोमाली भाषा | लिङ्गाला भाषा | त्वाई-फान्टे भाषा | इलोकानो भाषा | जोशा भाषा | मिनान कबाऊ भाषा | यी (लोलो) भाषा | फिनिश भाषा | बोलोफ भाषा | रूंडी भाषा | नर्वेजियन भाषा | स्लोभाक भाषा | आर्मेनियन भाषा | सेँ भाषा | सन्थाली भाषा | अल्बेनियन भाषा | मियाओ भाषा | मङ्गोलियन भाषा | किकियू भाषा | जार्जियन भाषा | हिब्रू भाषा | मोरे भाषा | लाओ भाषा | नियाना भाषा | गुआरानी भाषा | बटक तोबा भाषा कनूरी भाषा | टिग्रीनिया भाषा | बाइकोल भाषा | बलूची भाषा | अचाइनीज भाषा | बुंडा भाषा बालानीज भाषा | मकुआ भाषा | कङ्गो भाषा बिलि भाषा | टर्पमैन भाषा | एबी भाषा | स्वाना भाषा | शान भाषा | कम्बा भाषा | लुओ भाषा | ल्याटनियन भाषा | स्लोभेनियन भाषा चुवाश भाषा | गोण्डी भाषा | बेम्बा भाषा | म्यासेडोनियन भाषा | किरगिज भाषा | टुलू भाषा | मेंडे भाषा | मार्डविन भाषा | करेन भाषा सिडाम भाषा | एस्तोनियन भाषा | बाश्किर भाषा | फोन भाषा


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