युनानी भाषा (ελληνική γλώσσα छगू इण्डो-युरोपियन भाषा ख। थ्व भाषा करीब १.५-२.२ कोटी मनुतेसं ल्हाइ। आपालं थ्व भाषा युनान व साइप्रसय् छ्येलि तर अल्पमतीय कतहं हलिमया यक्व थासय् युनानी आप्रवासीतेसं छ्येलिगु या।
युनानी भाषा युनानय् युनानी लिपिइ ९गु शताब्दी निसें च्वैगु या, थ्व स्वया न्ह्यः थ्व भाषा लिनियर बी(१५-१३ इ पू)इ च्वैगु या। साइप्रसय् धाःसा थ्व भाषा ४गु शताब्दी ई पू निसें थ्व लिपि छ्येलाहःगु खनेद् दु, थ्व स्वया न्ह्यः साइप्रसय् साइप्रियट सिलेबरीइ थ्व भाषा च्वैगु या। युनानी साहित्यय् करिब ३०००दं निसें साहित्यिक ज्या जुयाच्वंगु खने दु।
Greek has been written in the Greek alphabet since approximately the 9th century BC. In classical Greek, as in classical Latin, only upper-case letters existed. The lower-case Greek letters were developed much later by medieval scribes to permit a faster, more convenient cursive writing style with the use of ink and quill. The variant of the alphabet in use today is essentially the late Ionic variant, introduced for writing classical Attic in 403 BC.
In addition to the letters, the Greek alphabet also features a number of diacritical signs: three different accent marks (acute, grave and circumflex), originally denoting different shapes of pitch accent on the stressed vowel; the so-called breathing marks (spiritus asper and spiritus lenis), originally used to signal presence or absence of word-initial /h/; and the diaeresis, used to mark full syllabic value of a vowel that would otherwise be read as part of a diphthong. These marks were introduced during the course of the Hellenistic period. Actual usage of the grave in handwriting had seen a rapid decline in favor of uniform usage of the acute during the late 20th century, and it had only been retained in typography.
In the writing reform of 1982, the use of most of them was abolished from official use in Greece. Since then, Modern Greek has been written mostly in the simplified monotonic orthography (or monotonic system), which employs only the acute accent and the diaeresis. The traditional system, now called the polytonic orthography (or polytonic system), is still used internationally for the writing of Ancient Greek.
Modern Greek is spoken by about 14 million people, mainly in Greece and Cyprus. There are also traditional Greek-speaking settlements in the neighboring countries Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey, as well as in several countries in the Black Sea area (The Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) and around the Mediterranean Sea (Southern Italy, Israel, Egypt and ancient coastal towns along the Levant). The language is also spoken by emigrant communities in many countries in Western Europe, North America, Australia, as well as in Argentina, Brazil and others.
Greek is the official language of Greece where it is spoken by about 99.5% of the population. It is also (nominally alongside Turkish), the official language of Cyprus. Because of the membership of Greece and Cyprus in the European Union, Greek is one of the 23 official languages of the European Union. Greek is officially recognized as a minority language in parts of Turkey, Italy and Albania.
- प्राचीन युनान
- प्राचीन युनानी भाषिका
- Center for the Greek language
- English pronunciation of Greek letters
- Greek language question
- Greek substrate language
- Hellenic Foundation for Culture
- List of Greek words with English derivatives
- That's Greek to me (expression)
- Varieties of Modern Greek
- Recognised in Italy as Griko
- Treaty of Lausanne, Art. 41.
- The Constitution of Cyprus, App. D., Part 1, Art. 3 states that The official languages of the Republic are Greek and Turkish. . However, the official status of Turkish is only nominal in the Greek-dominated Republic of Cyprus; in practice, outside Turkish-dominated Northern Cyprus, Turkish is little used; see A. Arvaniti (2006): Erasure as a a means of maintaining diglossia in Cyprus, San Diego Linguistics Papers 2: 25-38. Page 27.
- Herbert Weir Smyth, Greek Grammar, Harvard University Press, 1956 (revised edition), ISBN 0-674-36250-0. The standard grammar of classical Greek. Focuses primarily on the Attic dialect, with comparatively weak treatment of the other dialects and the Homeric Kunstsprache.
- W. Sidney Allen, Vox Graeca - a guide to the pronunciation of classical Greek. Cambridge University Press, 1968-74. ISBN 0-521-20626-X
- Geoffrey Horrocks, Greek: A History of the Language and Its Speakers (Longman Linguistics Library). Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 0-582-30709-0. From Mycenean to modern.
- Andrew Sihler, "A New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin", Oxford University Press, 1996. An historical grammar of ancient Greek from its Indo-European origins. Some eccentricities and no bibliography but a useful handbook to the earliest stages of Greek's development.
- Robert Browning, Medieval and Modern Greek, Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition 1983, ISBN 0-521-29978-0. An excellent and concise historical account of the development of modern Greek from the ancient language.
- Brian Newton, The Generative Interpretation of Dialect: A Study of Modern Greek Phonology, Cambridge University Press, 1972, ISBN 0-521-08497-0.
- Crosby and Schaeffer, An Introduction to Greek, Allyn and Bacon, Inc. 1928. A school grammar of ancient Greek
- David Holton et al., Greek: A Comprehensive Grammar of the Modern Language, Routledge, 1997, ISBN 0-415-10002-X. A reference grammar of modern Greek.
- Dionysius of Thrace, "Art of Grammar", "Τέχνη γραμματική", c.100 BC
- Greek Language, Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia.
- The Perseus Project has many useful pages for the study of classical languages and literatures, including dictionaries.
- The Greek Language and Linguistics Gateway, useful information on the history of the Greek language, application of modern Linguistics to the study of Greek, and tools for learning Greek.
- The Greek Language Portal, a portal for Greek language and linguistic education.
|Wikibooks has more on the topic of|
- Greek dictionary, tutorial and hangman program with texteditor, this shareware program is aimed at learning New Testament Greek.
- (Greek) komvos.edu.gr, a website for the support of people who are being taught the Greek language.
- Greek spell checker
- Modern Greek Course, a website with sound and many features for learning Modern Greek.
- Woodhouse English-Greek dictionary, scanned images from S.C. Woodhouse's 1910 dictionary.
- Greek Lexical Aids, descriptions of both online lexica (with appropriate links) and Greek Lexica in Print.
- The Greek Language Portal, dictionaries of all forms of Greek (Ancient, Hellenistic, Medieval, Modern).
- Online Greek-English and English-Greek dictionary (Modern Greek)
- Online Greek <-> English Dictionary with gender and type of words
- The Treasure of the Greek Language, a large collection of e-books from all stages of Greek language.
- Research lab of modern Greek philosophy, a large e-library of modern Greek texts/books.
- (Greek) Center for Neo-Hellenic Studies, a non-profit organization set in order to promote Modern Greek Literature and Culture.
- Books in Greek, an extended list of searchable bibliographic information. That is accurate.
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