पल्मोनरी इडिमा

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पल्मोनरी इडिमा
वर्गीकरण व पिनेयागु श्रोत
ICD-10 J81.
ICD-9 514
DiseasesDB ११०१७
MedlinePlus 000140
eMedicine med/1955  radio/581

पल्मोनरी इडिमा] सोंय् फ्लुइड जम्मा जुइगु व सों मनावैगु छगु अवस्था खः। थुकिलिं याना ग्यांस हिलेत थाकुइ व रेस्पिरेटरी फेल्युवर नं जुइ फु। थ्व नुगलं सों सर्कुलेसनं तरलतः पिथने मफया (कार्डियोजेनिक) वा सोंयु प्यारेन्काइमायु ल्वेनं(नन-कार्डियोजेनिक) याना जुइगु खः।[१] Treatment depends on the cause, but focuses on maximizing respiratory function and removing the cause.

लक्षण[सम्पादन]

थुकिगु लक्षणत खः

थ्व अवस्थायु उपचार मयासा मनु हाइपोक्सिया जुया सी नं फु।

If pulmonary edema has been developing gradually, symptoms of fluid overload may be elicited. These include nocturia (frequent urination at night), ankle edema (swelling of the legs, generally of the "pitting" variety, where the skin is slow to return to normal when pressed upon), orthopnea (inability to lie down flat due to breathlessness) and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (episodes of severe sudden breathlessness at night).

डायग्नोसिस[सम्पादन]

Pulmonary edema is generally suspected due to findings in the medical history, such as previous cardiovascular disease, and physical examination: end-inspiratory crackles (sounds heard at the end of a deep breath) on auscultation (listening to the breathing through a stethoscope) are characteristic for pulmonary edema. The presence of a third heart sound (S3) is predictive of cardiogenic pulmonary edema.[१]

Blood tests are generally performed for electrolytes (sodium, potassium) and markers of renal function (creatinine, urea). Liver enzymes, inflammatory markers (usually C-reactive protein) and a complete blood count as well as coagulation studies (PT, aPTT) are typically requested. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is available in many hospitals, especially in the US, sometimes even as a point-of-care test. Low levels of BNP (<100 pg/ml) make a cardiac cause very unlikely.[१]

The diagnosis is confirmed on X-ray of the lungs, which shows increased fluid in the alveolar walls. Kerley B lines, increased vascular filling, pleural effusions, upper lobe diversion (increased blood flow to the higher parts of the lung) may be indicative of cardiogenic pulmonary edema, while patchy alveolar infiltrates with air bronchograms are more indicative of noncardiogenic edema[१]

Low oxygen saturation and disturbed arterial blood gas readings may strengthen the diagnosis and provide grounds for various forms of treatment. If urgent echocardiography is available, this may strengthen the diagnosis, as well as identify valvular heart disease. In rare occasions, insertion of a Swan-Ganz catheter may be required to distinguish between the two main forms of pulmonary edema.[१]

कारक[सम्पादन]

Pulmonary edema is either due to direct damage to the tissue or as a result of inadequate functioning of the heart or circulatory system.

कार्डियोजेनिक[सम्पादन]

नन-कार्डियोजेनिक[सम्पादन]

This form is contiguous with ARDS (एक्ञुट रेस्पिरेटरी डिस्ट्रेस सिन्ड्रम):

थेरापी[सम्पादन]

Focus is initially on maintaining adequate oxygenation. This may happen with high-flow oxygen, noninvasive ventilation (either continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or variable positive airway pressure (VPAP)[२][३]) or mechanical ventilation in extreme cases.

When circulatory causes have led to pulmonary edema, treatment with intravenous nitrates (glyceryl trinitrate), and loop diuretics, such as furosemide or bumetanide, is the mainstay of therapy. These improve both preload and afterload, and aid in improving cardiac function.

There are no causal therapies for direct tissue damage; removal of the causes (e.g. treating an infection) is the most important measure.

श्रोत[सम्पादन]

  1. १.० १.१ १.२ १.३ १.४ Ware LB, Matthay MA. Acute pulmonary edema. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2788-96. PMID 16382065.
  2. Masip J, Roque M, Sanchez B, Fernandez R, Subirana M, Exposito JA. Noninvasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2005;294:3124-30. PMID 16380593.
  3. Peter JV, Moran JL, Phillips-Hughes J, Graham P, Bersten AD. Effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on mortality in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2006;367(9517):1155-63. PMID 16616558.

स्वया दिसं[सम्पादन]

पिनेयागु स्वापू[सम्पादन]