नात्सुमे सोसेकी

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नात्सुमे सोसेकी
Natsume Soseki photo.jpg
नात्सुमे सोसेकी सन् १९१२य्
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टोक्यो, जापान
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टोक्यो, जापान
ज्या: च्वमि
साहित्यिक विधा: उपन्यास, चिहाकगु बाखँ, चिनाखँ
प्रभावित च्वम्हि: वय्‌कः धुंकाया सकल थें जापानी उपन्यासकमितेत, कोजिन कारातानी
थ्व छगू जापानी नां ख; वय्‌कःया जात नात्सुमेख।

नात्सुमे सोसेकी (夏目 漱石? फेब्रुवरी ९ १८६७ - डिसेम्बर ९ १९१६) नात्सुमे किन्नोसुके (夏目金之助?)या च्वसा नां ख। वय्‌कः मेइजी काल(१८६८-१९१२)या दक्ले नांजाम्ह जापानी उपन्यासकार ख। वय्‌कःयात साधारणकथं सोसेकी धका म्हसीकी। वय्‌कःयात वय्‌कःया उपन्यास कोकोरो, बोत्छान, व आइ एम अ क्यातया निंतिं लुमंकी। वय्‌कः बेलायती साहित्यया स्कलर, हाइकु च्वमि, चिनिया पहया चिनाखँमि, व दन्त्य बाखँ च्वमि नं ख। १९८४ निसें २००४ तक्क वय्‌कःया किपा जापानी येन १०००या नोतय् खने दत।

प्रारम्भिक जीवन[सम्पादन]

Born as Natsume Kinnosuke in the town of Babashita in the Edo region of Ushigome (present Kikui, Shinjuku), Sōseki began his life as an unwanted child, born to his mother late in her life. His parents foisted him off on a former household servant (Shiobara Masanosuke) and his wife, by whom he was brought up until the age of nine. He returned to his household and was welcomed by his mother although regarded as a nuisance by his father. His mother died when he was fourteen, and his two eldest brothers in 1887, intensifying his sense of insecurity.

Sōseki attended the First Tokyo Middle School (now Hibiya High School),[१] where he became enamored with Chinese literature, and fancied that he might someday become a writer. However, his family disapproved strongly of this course of action, and when Sōseki entered the Tokyo Imperial University (now the University of Tokyo) in September of 1884, it was with the intention of becoming an architect. He began studying English at that time, feeling that it might prove useful to him in his future career.

In 1887, Sōseki met Masaoka Shiki, a friend who would give him encouragement on the path to becoming a writer, which would ultimately be his career. Shiki tutored him in the art of composing haiku. From this point on, Sōseki began signing his poems with the name Sōseki, which is a Chinese idiom meaning "stubborn". In 1890, Sōseki entered the English Literature department, and quickly became a master of the English language. Sōseki graduated in 1893, and enrolled for some time as a graduate student and part-time teacher at the Tokyo Normal School.

Sōseki began teaching at Matsuyama Middle School in Shikoku, in 1895, which is the setting of his novel Botchan. Along with fulfilling his teaching duties, Sōseki published haiku and Chinese poetry in a number of newspapers and periodicals. He resigned his post, in 1896, and began teaching at the Fifth High School in Kumamoto. On June 10 of that year, he married Nakane Kyoko.

Natsume Soseki's lodgings in Clapham, South London

सोसेकी बेलायतय्, १९०१-१९०३[सम्पादन]

In 1900, the Japanese government sent Sōseki to study in Great Britain. He visited Cambridge and stayed a night there, but gave up the idea of studying at the university because he could not afford it on his government scholarship. He had a miserable time of it in London, spending most of his days indoors buried in books, and his friends feared that he might be losing his mind. He also visited Pitlochry in Scotland.

He lived in four different lodgings. Nevertheless, despite his poverty and loneliness, he solidified his knowledge of English literature and returned to Japan in 1903. Five years later, in his preface to Bungakuron (The Criticism of Literature), he wrote about the period:

The two years I spent in London were the most unpleasant years in my life. Among English gentlemen I lived in misery, like a poor dog that had strayed among a pack of wolves.

In 1984, Sammy I. Tsunematsu opened the Soseki Museum at 80b, The Chase, London SW4 0NG.

After his return to the Empire of Japan, he replaced Koizumi Yakumo at the First Higher School, and subsequently became a professor of English literature at Tokyo Imperial University, where he taught literary theory and literary criticism.

साहित्यिक जीवन[सम्पादन]

Sōseki's literary career began in 1903, when he began to contribute haiku, renku (haiku-style linked verse), haitaishi (linked verse on a set theme) and literary sketches to literary magazines, such as the prominent Hototogisu, edited by his former mentor Masaoka Shiki, and later by Takahama Kyoshi. However, it was the public success of his short story Wagahai wa neko de aru ("I Am a Cat") in 1905 that won him wide public admiration as well as critical acclaim.

He followed on this success with short stories, such as Rondon to ("Tower of London") in 1905 and the novels Botchan ("Little Master"), and Kusamakura ("Grass Pillow") in 1906, which established his reputation, and which enabled him to leave his post at the university for a position with Asahi Shimbun in 1907, and to began writing full-time. He began writing one novel a year until his death from a stomach ulcer in 1916.

Major themes in Sōseki's works include ordinary people fighting against economic hardship, the conflict between duty and desire, loyalty and group mentality versus freedom and individuality, personal isolation and estrangement, the rapid industrialization of Japan and its social consequences, contempt of Japan's aping of Western culture, and a pessimistic view of human nature. Sōseki took a strong interest in the writers of the Shirakaba (White Birch) literary group. In his final years, authors such as Ryūnosuke Akutagawa and Kume Masao became close followers of his literary style.

मू ज्या[सम्पादन]

सोसेकीया मू ज्या थ्व कथं दु:

  • आइ एम ए क्यात (吾輩は猫である 1905)
  • लन्दन तावर (倫敦塔 1905)
  • बोत्छान (坊っちゃん 1906)
  • द थ्री-कर्नर्द वर्ल्द (草枕 Kusamakura,1906)
  • द हेरेदिती अफ तेस्त (趣味の遺伝 1906)
  • द २१० देय् (二百十日 1906)
  • The Poppy (虞美人草 Gubijinsô,1907)
  • The Miner (坑夫 1908)
  • Ten Nights of Dream (夢十夜 1908), also known as Ten Nights' Dreams
  • Sanshiro (三四郎 1908)
  • And Then (それから 1909)
  • The Gate (門 Mon,1910)
  • Spring Miscellany (1910)
  • To the Spring Equinox and Beyond (彼岸過迄 1912)
  • The Wayfarer (Kojin) (行人 1912)
  • कोकोरो (こころ 1914)
  • My Individualism (私の個人主義 1914), a famous speech
  • Grass on the Wayside (道草 1915)
  • Inside My Glass Doors (硝子戸の中 1915), English translation, 2002
  • Light and Darkness (明暗 1916, unfinished)

स्वयादिसँ[सम्पादन]

स्रोत[सम्पादन]

  • Bargen, Doris D. Suicidal Honor: General Nogi and the Writings of Mori Ogai and Natsume Sōseki. University of Hawaii Press (2006). ISBN 0-8248-2998-0
  • Doi,Takeo. The Psychological World of Natsume Sōseki. Harvard University Asia Center (1976). ISBN 0-674-72116-0
  • Gessel, Van C. Three Modern Novelists: Soseki, Tanizaki, Kawabata. Kodansha International, 1993
  • Keene, Donald. Dawn to the West: Japanese Literature of the Modern Era: Fiction, Chapter 12. 2nd Revised Edition, Columbia University Press, 1998.
  • Milward, Peter. The Heart of Natsume Sōseki: First Impressions of His Novels. Azuma Shobo (1981). ASIN: B000IK2690
  • Olson, Lawrence. Ambivalent Moderns: Portraits of Japanese Cultural Identity. Savage, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield (1992). ISBN 0-8476-7739-7
  • Ridgeway, William N. A Critical Study of The Novels of Natsume Sōseki, 1867-1916. Edwin Mellen Press (January 28, 2005). ISBN 0-7734-6230-9
  • Yu, Beongchoeon. Natsume Sōseki. Macmillan Publishing Company (1984). ISBN 0-8057-2850-3

लिधंसा[सम्पादन]

  1. {{cite book|title=新書で入門 漱石と鴎外 (A pocket paperback == introduction: Sōseki and Ōgai)|last=Takahashi|first=Akio|id=ISBN 4-10-610179-3|date=2006|publisher=Shinchosha}}

पिनेया स्वापूत[सम्पादन]